Sranan

Sranan, also known as Sranan Tongo, Taki-Taki, and Suriname Creole English, is used as the lingua franca of Suriname, and is one of 20 languages spoken in that country, among which are six other creoles. Sranan is spoken both as a first language and a lingua franca throughout the country and in western French Guiana. It is currently the native language of about 126,000 Surinamese, and a second (or third) language for most of the rest of the population of about 400,000. It is also estimated that most of the 200,000 people of Surinamese descent who now live in the Netherlands also speak Sranan. The varieties used by speakers there as well as by Dutch-dominant Surinamese have been influenced to varying degrees by Dutch. The varieties used by groups of Asian descent as well as by Amerindians also appear to have been influenced by the respective ethnic languages, though little research has been done to investigate such influences. There is also a great deal of variation in the language according to social class and status. In general, two primary varieties can be identified. One is the more conservative variety learnt as a first language by members of the working classes in poorer neighborhoods in Paramaribo, as well as in former plantation areas such as the Para District, Coronie, etc. These speakers are for the most part Afro-Surinamese, and refer to their vernacular as “Nengre” (Black Talk). This is the default lect selected for APiCS. The other main variety of Sranan has been more heavily influenced by Dutch since it is mostly used as second language by Dutch-dominant speakers, and is referred to as Dutch-influenced.

Glossed text (69.8KB, application/pdf)
No. Feature Value % lect Details Source
No. Feature Value % lect Details Source

Consonants

bilabial
labiodental
dental
dental/alveolar
dental/alveolar
affricate
palato-alveolar
retroflex
palatal
velar
labial-velar
uvular
glottal
plosive/affricatepbtdt͡sd͡zt͡ʃd͡ʒʈɖcɟkgk͡pg͡bqʔ
aspirated plosive/affricatet͡sʰt͡ʃʰ
glottalized stop/affricateɓt͡sʼt͡ʃʼ
nasalmnɳɲŋ
trill, tap or flaprɾ
fricativeɸβfvθðszʃʒxɣχh
lateral/approximantɬlɭjw

Vowels

frontnear-frontcentralnear-backback
high
higher-mid
mid
lower-mid
low

Special segments

aidiphthong falling from low central unrounded vowel to high front unrounded vowel - Exists (as a major allophone)
eidiphthong falling from higher mid front unrounded vowel to high front unrounded vowel - Exists (as a major allophone)
oudiphthong falling from higher mid back rounded vowel to high back rounded vowel - Exists (as a major allophone)
oidiphthong falling from higher mid back rounded vowel to high front unrounded vowel - Exists (as a major allophone)
audiphthong falling from low central unrounded vowel to to high back rounded vowel - Exists (as a major allophone)
uidiphthong going from high back rounded vowel to high front unrounded vowel - Exists only in loanwords

Legend

 Exists (as a major allophone)
 Exists only as a minor allophone
 Exists only in loanwords
 Does not exist
No. Feature Value % lect Details Source