Datapoint Kriol/Uses of the habitual marker

Two habitual markers coexist in all Kriol varieties, oldei~orlas~olwei~ala (which can be combined with the past tense marker) and yusdu~yustu (which always has past reference). They seem to be restricted to marking habitual function.

Values

Only habitual function

Example 25-232:
Wi yusdu habim kid la bush, ani wi neva habim [...] melk, wi yusdu go bek bo olden taim.
Wi
1pl
yusdu
hab
hab-im
have-tr
kid
child
la
loc
bush,
bush
ani
but
wi
1pl
neva
neg2
hab-im
have-tr
[...]
[...]
melk,
milk
wi
1pl
yusdu
hab
go
go
bek
back
bo
purp
olden
old
taim.
time
We used to have children in the bush, but [sometimes] we didn't have milk, we used to go back to the old timer [treatment].
Example 25-148:
Bat ole holidei oldei olmaolman wi yusdu getim.
Bat
but
ole
pl
holidei
holiday
oldei
always/hab
olma~olman
red.older.man
wi
1pl
yusdu
hab
get-im.
get-tr
But during all holidays with the old people we used to get them (traditional stone tools).
Example 25-78:
Gardiya bin oldei ringim thet bel.
Gardiya
white.person
bin
pst
oldei
always/hab
ring-im
ring-tr
thet
dem
bel.
bell
A white person used to ring a bell every day. (context: work on the cattle stations, when speaker was young).
Example 25-79:
Wi yusdu get haidin from wait men yuno, oletaim.
Wi
1pl
yusdu
hab
get
get
haidin
hiding
from
from
wait
white
men
men
yuno,
you.know
oletaim.
always
We used to get a beating from the white people all the time.
Example 25-168:
Dijan longtaim la fam en wi bin abum ol fam dea langa lolebul. Dijan la Katharrain en mai fatha yusta wek dea blanga dat men. Imin - dat men imin neim ol Jim.
Dijan
prox:adj
longtaim
long.ago
la
loc
fam
farm
en
and
wi
1sg
bin
pst
ab-um
have-tr
ol
old
fam
farm
dea
there
langa
loc
lolebul.
Low.Level
Dijan
prox:adj
la
loc
Katharrain
Katherine
en
and
mai
1sg.poss
fatha
father
yusta
hab
wek
work
dea
there
blanga
dat/poss
dat
dem
men.
man
Im=in
3sg=pst
-
 
dat
dem
men
man
im=in
3sg=pst
neim
name
ol
old
Jim.
Jim
This was long ago on a farm and we had an old farm there at Low Level (Crossing). This was in Katherine, and my father used to work there for that man. He- that man, his name was Old Jim. OR: This happened a long time ago on a farm. There was this old farm at the Low Level at Katherine and my father used to work there for a man named Jim. (Orig. Transl.)

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 65

Example 25-208:
Imin oldei nesimbat tu jet faiya.
Im=in
3sg=pst
oldei
always/hab
nes-im-bat
nurse-tr-prog
tu
too
jet
dem
faiya.
fire
It used to look after the fire too. (crocodile in myth)

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 61

Example 25-231:
Olabat oldei andi gaman.
Olabat
3pl
oldei
always/hab
andi
want.to
gaman.
come
They always want to come.

Source: Sandefur 1979: 133

Example 25-219:
Wi shud binala gidim du, ei?
Wi
1pl
shud
should
bin=ala
pst=always/hab
gid-im
get-tr
du,
too
ei?
tag
We should have been getting them too, ey? (Context: flood relief goods). OR: We should have been able to get them too, ey? (Orig. Transl.)

Source: Angelo et al. 1998a

Confidence:
Certain