Hawai‘i Creole

Hawai‘i Creole is the mother tongue of about 600,000 speakers, i.e. roughly half of the population, on the islands of Hawai‘i, which are located in the Pacific Ocean. An additional 100,000 (approximately) can be found on the US mainland, primarily on the West Coast, in Las Vegas (Nevada) and Orlando (Florida). It is used widely on all islands in all informal situations, both at home and in the work place. While it is primarily used as an oral language, literature (fiction, drama, poetry) in Hawai‘i Creole has been published for many decades. Hawai’i Creole is not a recognized language and is generally seen as an obstacle for advancement, although the language is now slowly gaining acceptance thanks to targeted awareness programs. The default lect documented in APiCS is naturalistic speech by adults between the ages 22 and 95 at the time of recording, all belonging to the working or lower middle class social strata.

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Consonants

bilabial
labiodental
dental
dental/alveolar
dental/alveolar
affricate
palato-alveolar
retroflex
palatal
velar
labial-velar
uvular
glottal
plosive/affricatepbtdt͡sd͡zt͡ʃd͡ʒʈɖcɟkgk͡pg͡bqʔ
aspirated plosive/affricatet͡sʰt͡ʃʰ
glottalized stop/affricateɓt͡sʼt͡ʃʼ
nasalmnɳɲŋ
trill, tap or flaprɾ
fricativeɸβfvθðszʃʒxɣχh
lateral/approximantɬlɭjw

Vowels

frontnear-frontcentralnear-backback
high
higher-mid
mid
lower-mid
low

Legend

 Exists (as a major allophone)
 Exists only as a minor allophone
 Exists only in loanwords
 Does not exist
No. Feature Value % Details Source