Datapoint Papiamentu/Passive constructions

The Papiamentu passive has the following characteristics:
(a) a passive auxiliary appears; this is either Spanish-derived ser or Dutch-derived wordu;
(b) the main verb appears in a participle form;
(c) the agent is optionally expressed; it is introduced by pa ('for'; Curacaoan speakers) or by the complex prepositional expression dor di (all dialects), where dor 'by' is an intransitive content-P made transitive by the addition of the functional P di 'of'.
Instead of a passive construction, an impersonal construction can be used: It contains a null subject which can be considered to have arbitrary reference.
Alternatively, an active construction can be used with a pronominal subject nan [3PL], which receives arbitrary interpretation. And finally, a construction using keda 'remain, stay' as auxiliary can also express passive meaning.
The passive construction is not frequent, and it is probably safe to say that many speakers consider it somewhat formal. For instance, Maduro (1971: 16) "corrects" the passive Rei Pablo a ser enterá [king Pablo PFV PASS buried] 'King Pablo has been buried' to an active construction Nan a dera rei Pablo [3PL PFV bury king Pablo] (same meaning). In a further section devoted entirely to "wrongly used" passives (pp.43–45), he replaces prototypical passives by impersonal constructions and by active constructions with nan subjects.

Values

Typical passive construction

Example 47-175:
Nos a ser risibí dor di nos amigunan.
Nos
1pl
a
pfv
ser
pass
risibí
received
dor
by
di
of
nos
1pl
amigu
friend
nan.
pl
We were received by our friends.

Source: Birmingham 1970: 96

Example 47-178:
Dia ora i lugá di entiero ta wordu anunsiá despues.
dia
day
ora
hour
i
and
lugá
place
di
of
entiero
enterment
ta
tns
wordu
pass
anunsiá
announced
despues
later
Date, time and place of the enterment will be announced later.

Source: Extra: 10 July 2009, p.3

Example 47-153:
A disidí kiko tin ku hasi?
A
pfv
disidí
decide
kiko
what
tin
have
ku
comp
hasi?
do
Has it been decided what needs to be done?

Source: Muller 1989b: 110

Example 47-176:
Ta publiká e buki aki na okashon di [...].
Ta
tns
publiká
publish
e
def
buki
book
aki
here
na
loc
okashon
occasion
di
of
[...].
[...]
This book is published on the occasion of [...].

Source: Papiamentu database

Example 47-179:
Nan a hòrta entre otro dos laptop Asus i Acer, un kámara Sony, un Ipod i un oloshi di man Diesel.
Nan
3pl
a
pfv
hòrta
steal
entre
among
otro
other
dos
two
laptop
laptop
Asus
Asus
i
and
Acer,
Acer
un
indf
kámara
camara
Sony,
Sony
un
indf
Ipod
Ipod
i
and
un
indf
oloshi
clock
di
of
man
hand
Diesel.
Diesel
Among others, two Asus and Acer laptops, a Sony camera, an I-pod, and a Diesel watch were stolen.

Source: Extra: 26 June 2009, p.3

Example 47-177:
[...] fwentenan historiko skirbí na Hulandes i Spañó a keda mantení den nan idioma original [...].
[...]
[...]
fwente
source
nan
pl
historiko
historical
skirbí
written
na
loc
Hulandes
Dutch
i
and
Spañó
Spanish
a
pfv
keda
remain
mantení
maintained
den
in
nan
3pl
idioma
language
original
original
[...].
[...]
[...] historical sources written in Dutch and Spanish have been included [lit. maintained] in their original language [...] (lit. [...] historical sources written in Dutch and Spanish have been maintained in their original language [...]).

Source: Papiamentu database

Confidence:
Very certain