90 Passive constructions

This feature is described more fully in chapter 90.


A typical passive construction contrasts with a basic active construction, its subject corresponds to the object of the active and the active subject is expressed as an oblique phrase or dropped, it is pragmatically restricted vis-à-vis the active, and it is marked on the verb by an affix or auxiliary. Passives that lack verbal coding (e.g. Bahamian Creole I christen in that church) also occur quite widely. Passives may also be atypical in other ways, e.g. Singlish John give his boss scold 'John was scolded by his boss', where the active subject becomes the object of the passive auxiliary give.


Martin Haspelmath and the APiCS Consortium


Typical passive construction181937
Passive without verbal coding121729
Other atypical passive construction426
Absence of passive construction23023

Language Value Lexifier Details Source
Id Primary text Analyzed text Gloss Translation Type Language Audio Details