Datapoint Cape Verdean Creole of Santiago/Complementizer with verbs of speaking

The complementizer after verbs of speaking, thinking and perception is ma, with the variants kuma and kumâ. Thus, it is not identical to the element ki 'that', which introduces other clauses (e.g. subject clauses). Historically, (ku)ma is linked to
Old Ptg. coma 'as'. However, it can also be linked to kuma of Guinea-Bissau Kriyol, which has the meanings 'say', 'that' (after verbs of speaking and thinking) and 'as' and which, on its part, is probably related to Mandinka kuma, which, as a noun, means 'speech' and, as a verb, 'say'.

Values

Complementizer not synchronically related to ‘say’ Frequency: 90.0%

Example 30-201:
Nhu sabe ma tudu algen ta fla ma mi ku nho nu ta parse txeu, o Nastási!
Nhu=sabe
2sg.pol.m=know
ma=tudu
comp=all
algen
someone
ta=fla
ipfv=say
ma=mi
comp=1sg.indp
ku=nho
with=2sg.pol.m.indp
nu=ta=parse
1pl=ipfv=resemble
txeu,
much
o
oh
Nastási!
Nastási
Nastási, you know that everybody says that we resemble each other much.

Source: Lang 2002: s.v. algen

Example 30-78:
Es ta fla ma si bu ten sais fidju, ma kel di séti, ma ta da lobuzómi.
Es=ta=fla
3pl=ipfv=say
ma=si=bu=ten
comp=if=2sg=have
sais
six
fidju,
child
ma=kel=di=séti,
comp=dem.sg=of=seven
ma=ta=da
comp=ipfv=give
lobuzómi.
werewolf
They say that if you have (already) six children, the seventh will be a werewolf.
German: Man sagt, dass, wenn man schon sechs Kinder hat, das siebte ein Werwolf wird.

Source: Lang 2002: s.v. lobuzómi

Confidence:
Very certain

No complementizer Frequency: 10.0%

Example 30-202:
Fládu tudu algen ki ben li, nhu ta máta [...].
Flá-du
say-pass
tudu
all
algen
somebody
ki=ben
comp=come
li,
here
nhu=ta=máta
2sg.pol.m=ipfv=kill
[...].
[...]
It is said that you kill everyone who comes here [...].
German: Man sagt, dass Sie alle umbringen, die hierherkommen [...].

Source: da Silva 1987: 221

Confidence:
Certain