Datapoint Kriol/Negative morpheme types

Kriol has two general invariable negative particles, no(mo) and neva. In certain contexts, specific negative auxiliaries are used – or rather, they are words such as din 'didn't' and kan 'can't' that are derived from English auxiliaries, but as they do not co-occur with TAM marking, it is unclear whether they should be considered as auxiliaries or particles in Kriol.

Values

Negative particle Frequency: 70.0%

Example 25-159:
Hi nomo faindim broken leg, nathing, bon bin kam [...] beta, hilap.
Hi
3sg
nomo
neg
faind-im
find-tr
broken
broken
leg,
leg
nathing,
nothing
bon
bone
bin
pst
kam
come
[...]
[...]
beta,
better
hil-ap.
heal-up
He didn’t find a broken leg any more, the bone had gotten better, it had healed. (Doctor in later consultation of a patient with a broken leg.)
Example 25-135:
Yubala go gedim main daga. Nomo wori bla ola pipul.
Yubala
2pl
go
go
ged-im
get-tr
main
1sg.poss
daga.
tucker
Nomo
neg
wori
worry
bla
dat/poss
ola
pl
pipul.
people
You lot go and get my food. Don’t worry about the people.

Source: Bennett 1986: 1

Example 25-193:
Im no bin ladim enibodi tatjim dat faiya bla im en imin oldei nesimbat tu dat faiya.
Im
3sg
no
neg
bin
pst
lad-im
let-tr
enibodi
anybody
tatj-im
touch-tr
dat
dem
faiya
fire
bla
dat/poss
im
3sg
en
and
im=in
3sg=pst
oldei
always
nes-im-bat
nurse-tr-prog
tu
too
dat
dem
faiya.
fire
He wouldn't let anybody touch his fire. He always kept it with him.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 61

Example 25-325:
Yu nomo gotim ninarlnguj, thet the Nangarla gotim, C.
Yu
2sg
nomo
neg
got-im
have-tr
ninarlnguj,
lower.leg
thet
dem
the
eq.cop
Nangarla
Nangarla
got-im,
have-tr
C.
C.
You don't have (the word) ninarlnguj (written down), it's Nangarla who has it, C. (referring to another linguist)
Example 25-134:
Nomo gata lif, thislot botel tri.
Nomo
neg
gata
com
lif,
leaf
this-lot
prox-pl
botel
bottle
tri.
tree
They don’t have leaves, these bottle trees!
Example 25-91:
Jed olgamen bin luk ebriweya bat im nomo bin faindim olabat.
Jed
dem
olgamen
woman
bin
pst
luk
look
ebriweya
everywhere
bat
but
im
3sg
nomo
neg
bin
pst
faind-im
find-tr
olabat.
3pl
The woman looked everywhere but couldn’t find them.

Source: Bennett 1986: 5

Example 25-324:
Nobodi neva putimbat mai haus.
Nobodi
nobody
neva
neg2
put-im-bat
put-tr-prog
mai
1sg.poss
haus.
house
Nobody ever builds my house.
Example 25-232:
Wi yusdu habim kid la bush, ani wi neva habim [...] melk, wi yusdu go bek bo olden taim.
Wi
1pl
yusdu
hab
hab-im
have-tr
kid
child
la
loc
bush,
bush
ani
but
wi
1pl
neva
neg2
hab-im
have-tr
[...]
[...]
melk,
milk
wi
1pl
yusdu
hab
go
go
bek
back
bo
purp
olden
old
taim.
time
We used to have children in the bush, but [sometimes] we didn't have milk, we used to go back to the old timer [treatment].
Confidence:
Very certain

Negative auxiliary verb Frequency: 30.0%

Example 25-43:
Bat au fatha bin telim "na yu kan teikimbek this tu kid".
Bat
but
au
1pl.poss
fatha
father
bin
pst
tel-im
tell-tr
"na
no
yu
2sg
kan
can.neg
teik-im-bek
take-tr-back
this
prox
tu
two
kid".
child
But our father told him "no you can't take back these two kids".
Example 25-268:
Jad sineik din rili laikim jad lilboi.
Jad
dem
sineik
snake
din
pst.neg
rili
really
laik-im
like-tr
jad
dem
lilboi.
little.boy
The snake didn't really like the little boy (but rather wanted to eat him).

Source: Brennan 1993: 18

Example 25-301:
Yu kan getim langa thet lili rut.
Yu
2sg
kan
can.neg
get-im
get-tr
langa
loc
thet
dem
lili
lily
rut.
root
You can't get [fish when fishing] amidst the lily roots.
Example 25-323:
I kan ranawei.
I
3sg
kan
can.neg
ran-awei.
run-away
It cannot run away. (Referring to a goanna, a large reptile hunted as food.)
Example 25-322:
Hi don wantim olabat habem, pirdi deinjes.
Hi
3sg
don
neg
want-im
want-tr
olabat
3pl
hab-em,
have-tr
pirdi
pretty
deinjes.
dangerous
He doesn't want them (the children) to have them, [they are] pretty dangerous. (Talking about sling shots.)
Confidence:
Uncertain