Principense, a Portuguese-based language called Lung’Ie (the language of the island) by its speakers, is an endangered language. On the island of Principe (Gulf of Guinea), there are maybe still twenty native speakers who speak the language fluently; however, a teritorially homogeneous linguistic community does not exist any more. The dominant languages of Principe are regional varieties of Portuguese as well as Cape Verdean Creole; the latter is spoken by more than half of the population of the island, due to the important immigration of Cape Verdeans from the beginning of the 20th century.
Some efforts have been made to teach Principense in school, but these efforts have not been successful. Printed media do not exist on the island of Principe, but radio news are broadcast five times a week (sometimes less).
Outside Principe, Principense is spoken on the neighbouring island São Tomé; a fairly numerous community of Principense speakers live in Lisbon (Portugal); however, it is impossible to determine the exact number of these native speakers.
The default lect described in APiCS is the lect spoken by people aged sixty or more; younger generation refers to some extremely rare speakers between thirty and fifty years who possess a good command of the language.
|Approximant||l||j ʎ ȷ̃|
|Flap or tap|
|ɓ||voiced bilabial implosive plosive|
|w||voiced labial-velar glide|
|ɗ||voiced dental/alveolar implosive plosive|
|k͡p||voiceless labial-velar plosive|
|g͡b||voiced labial-velar plosive|
|Exists (as a major allophone)|
|Exists only as a minor allophone|
|Exists only in loanwords|