Datapoint Belizean Creole/Passive constructions

The four examples 166, 164, 165 and 167 given for Value 3 show that the passive interpretation is derived from the basic verb stem, with no special particle. Other particles may be present (e.g. the future particle in Example 166). Since only the context provides the correct interpretation (passive or active), it is in fact doubtful that Belizean Creole has a passive construction.

Values

Passive without verbal coding Frequency: 70.0%

Example 9-166:
Da moni wan split ina tri.
Da
that
moni
money
wan
fut
split
split
ina
in
tri.
three
That money will be split into three. OR: That money will be divided into three parts.

Source: Escure's 1985 materials

Example 9-164:
Dat waz di onli man hu poniʃ.
Dat
that
waz
was
di
the
onli
only
man
man
[hu
[rel
poniʃ
punish
_].
_]
That was the only man who was punished.

Source: Escure 2004: CD

Example 9-165:
A yuztu tiyʧ bay nɔn.
A
1sg
yuztu
used.to
tiyʧ
teach
bay
by
nɔn.
nun
I used to attend a school where the teachers were nuns.

Source: Escure's 1992 materials

Example 9-167:
A disgos si dem.
A
1sg
disgos
disgust
si
see
dem.
3pl
I am disgusted when I see them.

Source: Escure's 1985 materials

Confidence:
Very certain

Typical passive construction Frequency: 30.0%

Example 9-168:
Yu get ʧap kwik.
Yu
2sg
get
get
ʧap
chop
kwik.
quick
You get chopped quickly. OR: You may soon get cut/hurt.

Source: Escure 1983a: 42

Confidence:
Certain