Datapoint Michif/Gender distinctions in personal pronouns

The French personal pronouns are not used. Cree personal pronouns do not distinguish gender.

Only occasionally the pronoun sa (< French, where it refers to inanimates) is used for animate referents, i.e. it is gender-neutral in contrast to Standard French ça. In the Métis dialect of French, this is also gender-neutral.

There is also a set of forms ili (from French il est 'he is'), site 'he/she/it was' (from French c'était), sitenn (from French c'est un/e) which are gender-neutral.

Cree distinguishes between animate and inanimate in verbs, demonstratives, and pronouns. These personal pronouns of the third person are used, and have the same form as the demonstratives. These forms distinguish gender.

Values

In 3rd person singular and plural only

Example 75-53:
Ekwanima piko kaakanaweeyihtahk site soo suyii.
Ekwanima
that.mentioned
piko
only
kaa-kanaweeyiht-ahk
rel-keep-3.sbj.3.obj.inan
site
3.was
soo
3.poss.m
suyii.
shoe
The only thing that she had kept was her shoe.

Source: Fleury 2007

Example 75-54:
Kiinipaahishin ana, ahpo eetikwee.
Kii-nipaa-ishi-n
pst-die-fall-3sg
ana,
that.one.anim
ahpo
or
eetikwee.
apparently
Maybe he fell down dead, I don't know.

Source: Fleury 2007

Example 75-50:
Namo kakiiituhtew wiya.
Namo
neg
kakii-ituhte-w
able-go-3sg
wiya.
3sg
She was not able to go.

Source: Fleury 2007

Example 75-51:
Ma fiy avik so marii sa sakord baen.
Ma
1.poss.f
fiy
girl
avik
with
so
3.poss.m
marii
husband
sa
3pl
sakord
agree
baen.
well
My daughter and her husband are harmonious (get along well).

Source: Laverdure & Allard 1983: 126

Example 75-52:
La fiy ana, site yaenk aen servant ana.
La
def.art.f.sg
fiy
girl
ana,
dem.sg.anim.interm
site
be.pst.3
yaenk
only
aen
indf.art
servant
servant
ana.
dem.sg.anim.interm
That girl, she was only a servant.

Source: Fleury 2007

Example 75-55:
Akwanikik savayet tii zhvoo.
Akwanikik
those.anim
sa-va-yet
3pl-fut-be
tii
2pl.poss
zhvoo.
horse.pl
Those will be your horses.

Source: Fleury 2007

Confidence:
Certain