13 Gender distinctions in personal pronouns

This feature is described more fully in chapter 13.


In this feature (based on WALS feature 44, by Anna Siewierska), we look at gender distinctions in independent personal pronouns. Although most European languages (and others) display such gender distinctions, many APiCS languages lexically based on these languages do not, whether they are dependent (i.e. bound to the verb, as in Papiamentu Mi ta traha. ‘I am working’) or independent (i.e. potentially standing alone as, for instance, in elliptical answers; e.g. Papiamentu Ken ta traha?Ami. ‘Who is working? – Me.’).


Philippe Maurer and the APiCS Consortium


No gender distinctions58
In 3rd person singular only12
In 3rd person singular and plural only4
In 2nd person but not in 3rd person2

Language Value Lexifier Details Source
Id Primary text Analyzed text Gloss Translation Type Language Audio Details