Datapoint Gurindji Kriol/Focusing of the noun phrase

How information is structured in Gurindji Kriol is not clear.

One construction which accords prominence to an actor and has focus-like properties, in this sense, involves a subject being marked ergative (Gurindji Kriol is an optional ergative language) and a resumptive pronoun.

Another construction which may be considered a cleft construction is the Kriol-derived dats da. This construction is derived from the English that's the. What is interesting is that dats and da are not used in Gurindji Kriol independently.

Values

Fronting with particle before focus Frequency: 50.0%

Example 72-157:
Bat datsda karungku i bin pangkily im.
Bat
but
datsda
foc
karu-ngku
child-erg
i
3sg.sbj
bin
pst
pangkily
hit.on.head
im.
3sg.obj
But it was the child who hit him on the head.

Source: Gurindji Kriol database 2003-2006

Confidence:
Certain

In situ focusing (with particle) Frequency: 50.0%

Example 72-89:
Karungku im pangkily im marluka.
karu-ngku
child-erg
im
3sg
pangkily
hit.on.head
im
3sg
marluka.
old.man
The kid hit the old man on the head. / It is the kid who hit the old man on the head.

Source: Gurindji Kriol database 2003-2006

Confidence:
Uncertain