104 Focusing of the noun phrase

This feature is described more fully in chapter 104.


A noun or a noun phrase can be focused (contrastively) by different means. Among the most commonly used strategies in the APiCS languages, we find cleft constructions. A cleft construction is a biclausal construction consisting of a focus clause and a background clause. The focus clause consists of the focus (i.e. the focused noun phrase) and normally a highlighter, either a copula or a focus particle).


Philippe Maurer and the APiCS Consortium


Cleft with copula before focus191231
Cleft with copula after focus246
Cleft with focus particle before focus3811
Cleft with focus particle after focus066
Bare cleft (without highlighter)51015
Fronting with particle before focus358
Fronting with particle after focus7613
Bare fronting (without particle)235
In situ focusing (with particle)336

Language Value Lexifier Details Source
Id Primary text Analyzed text Gloss Translation Type Language Audio Details