Datapoint Juba Arabic/Passive constructions

(1) Verbs ending in -u#, -a#. Juba verbs ending in -u# and in -a# are transitive in the majority of cases (e.g. jíbu 'bring', dáfa 'pay'). The derivation of a passive voice for this category of verbs implies a morphological marking which consists in a stress displacement whose outcomes vary according to the syllabic structure and the phono-morphological features of the verb (e.g. jíbu 'bring' vs. jibú [bring\PASS], kátulu 'kill' vs. katulú 'killed', ásma 'listen' vs. asmáo 'listened', dába 'slaughter' vs. dabaó 'slaughtered'). As regards the syntax, the subject of the active is often omitted; otherwise, it is placed in a peripheral position in comparison with the patient, which occupies the subject position when an agent is specified or when the passive is followed by a secondary verb (accusative phrase). In the case of impersonal or habitual phrases without agent the patient occupies a direct object position and follows the verb (ergative phrase).
(2) Verbs ending in -í#. These are morphologically invariable verbs which always have stress on the last syllable. So even if the patient always precedes the verb, the passive construction is not prototypical since there is no morphological marking. The agent is always absent.

Values

Typical passive construction

Example 64-180:
ána kutú géni fi síjin ma jes
ána
1sg
kutú
put\pass
géni
stay
fi
in
síjin
prison
ma
with
jes
army
I was imprisoned by the army.

Source: Manfredi 2005: 155

Example 64-181:
bidabaó gánam bad dabaó gánam kalás
bi=dabaó
irr=slaughter\pass
gánam
goat
bad
after
dabaó
slaughter\pass
gánam
goat
kalás
finished
A goat is (habitually) slaughtered, after it has been slaughtered, all is over.
Example 64-122:
ísim de wodí le ana
ísim
name
de
dem.prox
wodí
give
le
to
ana
1sg
I was given this name.

Source: Manfredi 2005: 155

Example 64-182:
bágara worí le ana
bágara
cow
worí
show
le
to
ana
1sg
A cow was shown to me.

Source: Manfredi 2005: 155

Example 64-183:
fi maál genadí nádi
fi
exist
maál
place
ge=nadí
prog=call
nádi
nadi
There’s a place called Nadi.

Source: Manfredi 2005: 156

Confidence:
Very certain