Datapoint Palenquero/Present reference of stative verbs and past perfective reference of dynamic verbs

Statives with non-past reference are expressed in two ways: (a) with the bare verb stem ( __ + V), or (b) with a + the bare verb stem (a + V).

Patiño Rosselli (1983: 123) believes that the preverbal particle a in a + V is devoid of any semantic function, and that constructions (a) and (b) are, therefore, in free alternation (cf. [4] to [6] in Schwegler & Green 2007, where polé and a polé appear to have identical meanings). To date, no plausible alternative explanation has been offered, but the suspicion persists that this a does hold a hitherto unidentified function (see also Moñino (1999)).

Note, however, that Maurer (1987) showed that the free alternation between zero-marked verbs and verbs marked by a holds also with dynamic verbs referring to a past perfective situation. Maurer also points to the fact that in Bantu languages, stative verbs referring to present events cannot be marked by present tense, but must be marked by the perfect marker (see also Lingala and Mixed Ma'a/Mbugu in this database). This could explain why stative verbs referring to present situations and dynamic verbs referring to past perfective situations are both marked with a in Palenquero, although optionally.

Clearly, additional research is required before we can have a well-grounded understanding of stative vs. dynamic verbs in Palenquero.

Values

Stative verbs with present reference and dynamic verbs with past perfective reference are marked with the same overt marker

Example 48-98:
Suto a-polé ta arí-ndo no.
Suto
we
a-polé
?-can
ta
prog
arí-ndo
laugh-prog
no.
not
We can't be laughing.
Spanish: (Nosotros) no podemos estar riéndo(nos).

Source: Schwegler & Green 2007: 276

Example 48-97:
I polé yebá kuenta nu.
I
I
__
__
polé
can
yebá
figure
kuenta
account
nu.
not
I can't figure (this) out. OR: I can't calculate (this).
Spanish: (Yo) no puedo llevar cuenta.

Source: Schwegler & Green 2007: 276

Example 48-21:
Suto a miní ayé.
Suto
we
a
pst
miní
come
ayé.
yesterday
We arrived yesterday.
Spanish: (Nosotros) llegamos ayer.
Example 48-211:
Ané engañá suto.
Ané
3pl
engañá
cheat
suto.
1pl
They cheated us.
Confidence:
Certain