Datapoint Palenquero/Position of tense, aspect, and mood markers in relation to the verb

Except for the habitual marker -ba and the progressive marker -ndo (both suffixed to verb), TAM markers are preverbal in Palenquero. This includes the future marker tan, progressive ta, past (or anterior) a, conditional aké, habitual asé, etc.

It should be kept in mind, however, that the postverbal habitual marker -ba and the progressive marker -ndo are very common in the creole, so that Palenqueros are used to seeing at least some TAM particles in post- rather than preverbal position.

Values

Immediately preceding the verb Frequency: 63.6%

Example 48-17:
¿Aonde bo tan bae?
¿Aonde
where
bo
you.sg
tan
fut
bae?
go
Where are you (sg.) going?
Spanish: ¿Adónde te vas?
Example 48-21:
Suto a miní ayé.
Suto
we
a
pst
miní
come
ayé.
yesterday
We arrived yesterday.
Spanish: (Nosotros) llegamos ayer.
Example 48-29:
¿Kuando utere a yegá?
¿Kuando
when
utere
you.pl
a
pst
yegá?
arrive
When did you arrive?
Spanish: ¿Cuándo llegaron ustedes?
Example 48-80:
Nina ta besá-ndo é.
Nina
Nina
ta
prog
besá-ndo
kiss-prog
é.
he/she
Nina is kissing him/her.
Spanish: Nina está besándolo/-la.

Source: de Friedemann & Patiño Rosselli 1983: 259

Example 48-50:
Akí kasa suto asé bibí bien.
Akí
here
kasa
house
suto
we
asé
hab
bibí
live
bien.
well
In this house we live well.
Spanish: En esta casa vivimos bien.
Example 48-61:
Moná ri ele a yegá ayé.
Moná
son/daughter
ri
of
ele
him/her
a
pst
yegá
arrive
ayé.
yesterday
His/her son/daughter arrived yesterday.
Spanish: El hijo / la hija de él/ella llegó ayer.
Confidence:
Very certain

Immediately following the verb Frequency: 27.3%

Example 48-81:
I ta kandá-ndo ele.
I
I
ta
prog
kandá-ndo
sing-prog
ele.
he/she
I am singing (lamenting) her.
Spanish: (Yo) estoy cantándolo/cantándola (estoy lamentando la muerte de él/ella).
Example 48-82:
Ané ta ablá-ndo ku yo.
Ané
ellos
ta
prog
ablá-ndo
talk-prog
ku
with
yo.
I
They are talking with me. OR: They are speaking to me.
Spanish: (Ellos) están hablando conmigo.
Confidence:
Very certain

In a rightward position Frequency: 9.1%

Example 48-83:
¿Utere asé-ba kandá-lo-ba por kuanto ría?
¿Utere
you.pl
asé-ba
hab-prog
kandá-lo-ba
sing-it-pst.prog
por
for
kuanto
how.many
ría?
day
You were usually singing to (lamenting) him for how many days?
Spanish: (Ustedes) solían cantarlo (lamentar el muerto) por cuántos días?
Confidence:
Very certain