Datapoint Palenquero/Position of standard negation

Schwegler (1991) and Dieck (2000, 2002) show that Palenquero grammar has three predicate negation structures, and that their behaviour is not directly related to the presence or absence of emphasis or commands. These negation structures are:

1. Strictly preverbal negation:
nu V (….)
2. Double (discontinuous) negation:nu V (….) nu
3. Postverbal (clause- or sentence-final) negation:
V (….) nu

The first two patterns also occur in other Afro-Hispanic regions of the Americas, including the Dominican Republic, Western Colombia (Pacific Lowlands), and Cuba (Schwegler 1996). Curiously, Costeño Spanish (northern Colombia) only has the Standard Spanish preverbal pattern. The double (but not the strictly postverbal) negation pattern does, however, occur in the Spanish of (some) Palenqueros (Schwegler & Morton 2003).
There is no agreement among specialists as to just exactly leads speakers to select a given pattern. Schwegler (1996) suggests that pragmatic factors (presuppositions) condition pattern selection. Dieck (2000, 2002) disagrees, citing semantic context and morphosyntactic criteria as primary causal determinants.
In terms of overall behaviour and use, the Palenquero negation patterns are very similar to those of popular Brazilian Portuguese:

- não falo
- falo não
- não falo não

where the three strategies are found (here too, the postverbal NEG occurs in clause- or sentence-final position).

Values

After verb plus postverbal object Frequency: 38.5%

Example 48-181:
E sé kelé p’ í tené-o nu.
E
he/she
hab
kelé
want
p’
for
í
I
tené-o
have-it
nu.
neg
He/she doesn’t want me to have it (lit. He/she does not want that I have it).
Spanish: (Él/ella) no quiere que yo lo tenga.

Source: Schwegler & Green 2007: 287

Example 48-179:
Suto sabé eso nu.
Suto
we
sabé
know
eso
this
nu.
neg
We don't know this.
Spanish: (Nosotros) no sabemos eso.
Confidence:
Certain

Bipartite, before verb and after object Frequency: 38.5%

Example 48-178:
I nu sabé eso nu.
I
I
nu
neg
sabé
know
eso
this
nu.
neg
I don't know this.
Spanish: (Yo) no sé eso.
Example 48-177:
I nu ten náa nu.
I
I
nu
neg
ten
have
náa
nothing
nu.
neg
I don't have anything.
Spanish: (Yo) no tengo nada.
Example 48-180:
¡Nu dejá-mi te nu!
¡Nu
neg
dejá-mi
leave-me
te
you.sg
nu!
neg
Don't leave me (alone)!
Spanish: ¡No me deje Usted! OR: ¡No me abandone aquí sola!

Source: Schwegler & Green 2007: 287

Confidence:
Certain

Before the verb Frequency: 23.1%

Example 48-176:
¿I pa ké uté nu kumblá?
¿I
and
pa
for
what
uté
you.sg
nu
neg
kumblá?
buy
And why did you not buy (it)?
Spanish: ¿Y por qué (Usted) no lo compró?

Source: Schwegler & Green 2007: 286

Confidence:
Certain