Datapoint Cape Verdean Creole of Santiago/Special dependent person forms for subject and object

Morphologically, there is no distinction between the independent personal pronoun (without the topicalizing a- prefix) and the dependent subject pronoun in 2PL (nhos). But the independent pronoun carries stress, whereas the dependent does not.
There are no dependent object pronouns for the polite 2SG, nor for the neutral 2PL. The tonic independent pronouns must be used instead: N ta kunpánha-nho, N ta kunpánha-nha, N ta kunpánha-nhos 'I shall accompany you'.
Furthermore, dependent object pronouns cannot be used after verb forms with an ending (there are three endings in this creole: -ba [ANT], -du [PASS] and -da [ANT + PASS]), nor can they be used as second object pronouns (the first – dependent! – functioning as an indirect object).

Values

Dependent subject and object forms

Example 30-36:
(A)mi N ta bai. (A)el e ta kunpanha-m. E ta kunpanha-l.
A-mi
top-1sg.indp
N=ta=bai.
1sg.dep=ipfv=go
A-el
top-3sg.indp
e=ta=kunpanha=m.
3sg.dep=ipfv=accompany=1sg
E=ta=kunpanha=l.
3sg.dep=ipfv=accompany=3sg
I go. He accompanies me. He accompanies him.
German: Ich gehe. Er begleitet mich. Er begleitet ihn.

Source: Lang 2012

Example 30-37:
N, bu, nhu, nha, e(l), nu, nhos, es
N,
1sg
bu,
2sg
nhu,
2sg.pol.m
nha,
2sg.pol.f
e(l),
3sg
nu,
1pl
nhos,
2pl
es
3pl
I, you, you (polite M), you (polite F), he/she, we, you, they

Source: Lang 2012

Example 30-38:
-m, -(b)u, -l, -nu, -s
-m,
1sg.obj.dep
-(b)u,
2sg.obj.dep
-l,
3sg.obj.dep
-nu,
1pl.obj.dep
-s
3pl.obj.dep
me, you, him/her, us, them

Source: Lang 2012

Confidence:
Very certain