Datapoint Afrikaans/Functions of reduplication

In order to avoid a list of references for this rather complicated topic, reference is made to an article by den Besten et al. (2003), where the primary references can be found.

Values

Attenuating and word-class-changing function

Example 29-36:
Kom ons speel tol-tol.
Kom
come
ons
1pl
speel
play
tol~tol.
top~top
Come let's play tops.

Source: den Besten et al. 2003: 276

Example 29-37:
Die vaas wil-wil omval.
Die
def.art
vaas
vase
wil~wil
want~want
om-val.
over-fall
The vase is just about to tip over.

Source: den Besten et al. 2003: 273

Example 29-38:
Hulle soek-soek so tussen die bossies.
Hulle
3pl
soek~soek
search~search
so
so
tussen
among
die
the
bossies.
bushes
They are searching among the bushes.
Example 29-39:
Lappe-lappe staan onder water.
Lappe~lappe
patch.pl~patch.pl
staan
stand
onder
under
water.
water
Quite a few patches are under water.

Source: den Besten et al. 2003: 274

Example 29-40:
Hulle kom drie-drie by die deur in.
Hulle
3pl
kom
come
drie~drie
three~three
by
by
die
the
deur
door
in.
in
They come in through the door three-by-three.

Source: den Besten et al. 2003: 275

Example 29-41:
Dis sommer 'n kar-kar.
Dis
3sg=s
sommer
just
'n
a
kar~kar.
car~car
It's just your basic car (nothing posh).

Source: den Besten et al. 2003: 274

Example 29-42:
Ek sal dit lag-lag kan koop.
Ek
1sg
sal
shall
dit
it
lag~lag
laugh~laugh
kan
can
koop.
buy
I'll be able to buy it easily.
Example 29-43:
Sy hanna-hanna altyd as sy iets moet doen.
Sy
3sg.f
hanna-hanna
procrastinate
altyd
always
as
if
sy
3sg.f
iets
something
moet
must
doen.
do
She always procrastinates when she has to do something.
Confidence:
Certain