Datapoint Hawai‘i Creole/Complementizer with verbs of speaking

Values

No complementizer Frequency: 70.0%

Example 26-30:
if aʊa gɹænmaɾa tol as nokæn
if
if
aʊa
1pl.poss
grænmaɾa
grandmother
tol
told
as
1pl.obl
no-kæn
proh
if our grandmothers told us we weren't allowed to

Source: Velupillai 2003a: 116

Example 26-108:
mama sæ a nokæn waʃ ma hɛa
mama
mama
said
a
1sg
nokæn
proh
waʃ
wash
ma
1sg.poss
hɛa
hair
Mama said that I wasn't allowed to wash my hair.

Source: Velupillai 2003a: 117

Example 26-109:
ma gɹænmaɾa tɔl as dæt wɛn da leɪdi wɛn ʃi keɪm bæk ʃi kɹaɪkɹakɹa kɔs ʃi tɔl ma gɹænmaɾa wɛn ʃi wɛn tu ɾa biʧ ʃi wɛn hɛmoɹɛʤ
ma
1sg.poss
gɹænmaɾa
grandmother
tɔl
told
as
1pl
dæt
comp
wɛn
when
da
art
leɪdi
lady
wɛn
when
ʃi
3sg
keɪm
came
bæk
back
ʃi
3sg
kɹaɪ-kɹa-kɹa
cry-intens-intens
kɔs
because
ʃi
3sg
tɔl
tol
ma
1sg.poss
gɹænmaɾa
grandmother
wɛn
when
ʃi
3sg
wɛn
went
tu
to
ɾa
art
biʧ
beach
ʃi
3sg
wɛn
pst.pfv
hɛmoɹɛʤ
haemorrhage
My grandmother told us that when the lady, when she came back she cried so much, because she told my grandmother that when she went to the beach she haemorrhaged.

Source: Velupillai 2003a: 103

Confidence:
Very certain

Complementizer not synchronically related to ‘say’ Frequency: 30.0%

Example 26-109:
ma gɹænmaɾa tɔl as dæt wɛn da leɪdi wɛn ʃi keɪm bæk ʃi kɹaɪkɹakɹa kɔs ʃi tɔl ma gɹænmaɾa wɛn ʃi wɛn tu ɾa biʧ ʃi wɛn hɛmoɹɛʤ
ma
1sg.poss
gɹænmaɾa
grandmother
tɔl
told
as
1pl
dæt
comp
wɛn
when
da
art
leɪdi
lady
wɛn
when
ʃi
3sg
keɪm
came
bæk
back
ʃi
3sg
kɹaɪ-kɹa-kɹa
cry-intens-intens
kɔs
because
ʃi
3sg
tɔl
tol
ma
1sg.poss
gɹænmaɾa
grandmother
wɛn
when
ʃi
3sg
wɛn
went
tu
to
ɾa
art
biʧ
beach
ʃi
3sg
wɛn
pst.pfv
hɛmoɹɛʤ
haemorrhage
My grandmother told us that when the lady, when she came back she cried so much, because she told my grandmother that when she went to the beach she haemorrhaged.

Source: Velupillai 2003a: 103

Confidence:
Very certain