Datapoint Kriol/Predicative adjectives

Predicative property expressions always occur without a copula in present tense, which is why Value 2 was chosen. They do occur with the past tense marker bin in the past tense, which is not analyzed as a copula here. However, they do occur with the copula bi with future time reference, and, in the Fitzroy Valley variety of younger speakers, also in the past tense.
Another complication concerns the function of stative verbs like stap 'live, stay' or jidan 'sit, be, stay' which could be said to be taking on a copula-like function, as in jidan kwait 'be quiet!' or Wi bin jidan-abat hanggriwan nili fo thri wik. 'We were hungry for nearly three weeks.' (DA98_01_Fladwada.013)

Values

No copula

Example 25-62:
Dijan na, hadwan brabli.
Dijan
prox:adj
na,
now
had-wan
hard-adj
brabli.
properly
This one is really hard. (context: picture matching task)
Example 25-172:
Jikiwan thet garndi.
Jiki-wan
cheeky-adj
thet
dem
garndi.
tree
It is 'cheeky' (bitter or dangerous) that (type of) tree.
Example 25-284:
Binji pat rait, im klinwan, ani i gotim mardba langa bekbon said.
Binji
belly
pat
part
rait,
right
im
3sg
klin-wan,
clean-adj
ani
only/but
i
3sg
got-im
have-tr
mardba
spike
langa
loc
bekbon
back
said.
side
The belly is all right, it's clean, but it has spikes on the back.
Example 25-65:
Dijan kokiroj bin rili bigwan.
Dijan
prox:adj
kokiroj
cockroach
bin
pst
rili
really
big-wan.
big-adj
This cockroach was really big. OR: Once there was a big cockroach. (Original translation)

Source: Bennett 1986: 1

Example 25-66:
Aaaa dis brabli gudwan.
Aaaa
interj
dis
prox
brabli
really
gud-wan.
good-adj
Ah, this one is very good.

Source: Graber 1987: 13

Example 25-283:
[...] wen ai bin yangwan.
[...]
[...]
wen
subord
ai
1sg
bin
pst
yang-wan.
young-adj
[...] when I was young.
Example 25-163:
Dijan iya im mukarra tri. Thad lif pat bla mukarra, im gudwan bla so.
Dijan
prox:adj
iya
here
im
3sg
mukarra
river.pandanus
tri.
tree
Thad
dem
lif
leaf
pat
part
bla
dat/poss
mukarra,
river.pandanus
im
3sg
gud-wan
good-adj
bla
dat/poss
so.
sore
This here is a river pandanus. The leaf of the river pandanus is good for sores.

Source: Daniels et al. 2001

Example 25-285:
Mibala bin reken dis matha bin sikwan.
Mibala
1pl
bin
pst
reken
think/say
dis
prox
matha
mother
bin
pst
sik-wan.
sick-adj
We figured this mother (bird) was sick.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 67

Example 25-286:
Det wotamelin garra bi bigwan.
Det
dem
wotamelin
watermelon
garra
fut/oblig
bi
cop
big-wan.
big-adj
The watermelon will be big (when it grows).

Source: Hudson 1985: 100

Example 25-287:
[...] wandi bi keful.
[...]
[...]
wandi
pot
bi
cop
keful.
careful
[we] should/will be careful.

Source: Angelo et al. 1998b

Example 25-288:
[...] en i bin bi lilbit swit.
[...]
[...]
en
and
i
3sg
bin
pst
bi
cop
lilbit
somewhat
swit.
sweet/tasty
[...] and it was quite tasty.

Source: Hudson 1985: 168

Confidence:
Certain