Datapoint Kriol/Expression of pronominal subjects

Subject pronouns in Kriol are generally obligatory in the absence of a full NP subject, except in imperatives.

Values

Obligatory pronoun words

Example 25-258:
Im getin la hol en i jatimap mijelb.
Im
3sg
getin
get.in
la
loc
hol
hole
en
and
i
3sg
jat-im-ap
shut-tr-up
mijelb.
refl
It gets into the hole and buries itself. (Referring to a goanna, a large reptile highly sought after for meat).
Example 25-259:
En ai maitbi digimba::t, aim fraiten yuno en ai kan pulem la leg en kilem.
En
and
ai
1sg
maitbi
maybe
dig-im-bat,
dig-tr-prog
aim
1sg:be.prs
fraiten
frightened
yuno
you.know
en
and
ai
1sg
kan
can.neg
pul-em
pull-tr
la
loc
leg
leg
en
and
kil-em.
kill-tr
And I may be digging, I’m frightened and can’t pull it by the leg and kill it (a goanna).
Example 25-260:
Imin kamap en imin lagijat en imin askim mi na [...].
Im=in
3sg=pst
kamap
come
en
and
im=in
3sg=pst
lagijat
like.that
en
and
im=in
3sg=pst
ask-im
ask-tr
mi
1sg
na
now
[...].
[...]
He came and went like that and asked me [...].

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 65

Example 25-221:
Ai bin ranbek garra biliken en ai bin bilimap olda eig.
Ai
1sg
bin
pst
ran-bek
run-back
garra
com/ins
biliken
billycan
en
and
ai
1sg
bin
pst
bil-im-ap
fill-tr-up
olda
pl
eig.
egg
I ran back with the billycan and I filled it up with the eggs.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 65

Example 25-193:
Im no bin ladim enibodi tatjim dat faiya bla im en imin oldei nesimbat tu dat faiya.
Im
3sg
no
neg
bin
pst
lad-im
let-tr
enibodi
anybody
tatj-im
touch-tr
dat
dem
faiya
fire
bla
dat/poss
im
3sg
en
and
im=in
3sg=pst
oldei
always
nes-im-bat
nurse-tr-prog
tu
too
dat
dem
faiya.
fire
He wouldn't let anybody touch his fire. He always kept it with him.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 61

Confidence:
Certain