62 Expression of pronominal subjects

This feature is described more fully in chapter 62.


In this feature (based on WALS feature 101, by Matthew S. Dryer), we ask how subjects are expressed when they refer to the speaker ('I', 'we'), to the hearer ('you'), or to a highly activated other referent ('he', 'she', 'it', 'they'). Usually the forms used in such circumstances are person forms. Many languages require subject pronouns which are words, but subject person forms may also be affixes, and in quite a few languages they are option. In two languages subject pronouns occur in a different position from subject full noun phrases.


Martin Haspelmath and the APiCS Consortium


Obligatory pronoun words49
Pronoun affixes4
Optional pronoun words18
Subject pronouns in different position2
Mixed behaviour of pronominal subjects3

Language Value Lexifier Details Source
Id Primary text Analyzed text Gloss Translation Type Language Audio Details