Datapoint Kriol/Tense-aspect systems

Kriol has a single clear tense marker, the past tense auxiliary/particle bin. (Although Hudson 1985: 29 notes a completive aspect meaning of this marker). Present tense is unmarked. Markers with future time reference also have a modal meaning. These are garra~gata~gota with a meaning of future or obligation and wana~andi~a
with an optative or potential meaning (usually with future time reference, but compatible with the past tense marker).

Aspectual distinctions are expressed by the auxiliary/particle yusda 'habitual past’, the particle oldei~orlas~ala 'always; habitual’ (compatible with the past tense marker) and by two progressive verb suffixes (also compatible with past tense as well as future markers). There remains a question as to whether these should be described as fully-fledged inflectional aspectual markers. Descriptions often label the -(a)bat marker as 'continuous' or 'iterative' and stress its link with verbal pluractionality and plural participants (e.g. Hudson 1985: 40–41), which would make it more of a lexical aspect/derivational marker. However, it does seem to be correlated with prototypical progressive contexts.

Values

Mixed aspectual-temporal system

Example 25-177:
Imin stilimbat brom dat awus.
Im=in
3sg=pst
stil-im-bat
steal-tr-prog
brom
from
dat
dem
awus.
house
He stole (them) from the house.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 65

Example 25-51:
Imin daib rait la jat krokadail wea imin nesimbat dat faiya.
Im=in
3sg=pst
daib
dive
rait
right
la
loc
jat
dem
krokadail
crocodile
wea
subord
im=in
3sg=pst
nes-im-bat
nurse-tr-prog
dat
dem
faiya.
fire
It dove right to the crocodile which was looking after the fire.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 61

Example 25-233:
Mindubala bin oldei kilimbat goana.
Mindubala
1du.excl
bin
pst
oldei
always
kil-im-bat
kill-tr-prog
goana.
goanna
The two of us used to kill goannas.
Example 25-85:
Wot fo im krainabat thet lil gel, yubala bin hitim?
Wot
what
fo
for
im
3sg
kra-in-abat
cry-prog2-prog
thet
dem
lil
little
gel,
girl
yubala
2pl
bin
pst
hit-im?
hit-tr
Why is she crying, this little girl, did you hit her?
Example 25-232:
Wi yusdu habim kid la bush, ani wi neva habim [...] melk, wi yusdu go bek bo olden taim.
Wi
1pl
yusdu
hab
hab-im
have-tr
kid
child
la
loc
bush,
bush
ani
but
wi
1pl
neva
neg2
hab-im
have-tr
[...]
[...]
melk,
milk
wi
1pl
yusdu
hab
go
go
bek
back
bo
purp
olden
old
taim.
time
We used to have children in the bush, but [sometimes] we didn't have milk, we used to go back to the old timer [treatment].
Example 25-208:
Imin oldei nesimbat tu jet faiya.
Im=in
3sg=pst
oldei
always/hab
nes-im-bat
nurse-tr-prog
tu
too
jet
dem
faiya.
fire
It used to look after the fire too. (crocodile in myth)

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 61

Example 25-77:
Ai bin oldei lisen mai olmen.
Ai
1sg
bin
pst
oldei
always/hab
lisen
listen
mai
1sg:poss
olmen.
old.man
I always/habitually listened to my old man (i.e. father).
Example 25-235:
Ai dono hau thei gada gajimbat [...] ola ebarrijing.
Ai
1sg
dono
don't.know
hau
how
thei
3pl
gada
fut/oblig
gaj-im-bat
get-tr-prog
[...]
[...]
ola
pl
ebarrijing.
thing
I don't know how they're going to get [their] things.

Source: Angelo et al. 1998b

Example 25-131:
Im kukumbat eig.
Im
3sg
kuk-um-bat
cook-tr-prog
eig.
egg
He is cooking eggs.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 65

Example 25-234:
Mibala wandim bla gugumbat taga.
Mibala
1pl
wand-im
want-tr
bla
dat/poss
gug-um-bat
cook-tr-prog
taga.
tucker
We want it (fire) for cooking food.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 61

Confidence:
Certain