Datapoint Kriol/Tightness of the link between the past marker and the verb

The past particle/clitic bin~=in generally immediately precedes the main verb, but temporal and aspectual markers and other elements such as stil~til 'still' can intervene.

Values

Particle, a few lexical items may intervene

Example 25-24:
Dei bin ol luginat la im.
Dei
3pl
bin
pst
ol
all
lug-in-at
look-prog-at
la
loc
im.
3sg
They all looked at him.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 61

Example 25-166:
Imin oldei telim mi “givit bek langa im thet taka blanga im, yu bin takat naf, givit bek la thet beibi".
Im=in
3sg=pst
oldei
always
tel-im
tell-tr
mi
1sg
“giv-it
give-tr
bek
back
langa
loc
im
3sg
thet
dem
taka
tucker
blanga
dat/poss
im,
3sg
yu
2sg
bin
pst
takat
eat
naf,
enough
giv-it
give-tr
bek
back
la
loc
thet
dem
beibi".
baby
She used to say to me "give it back to her, that food of hers, you have eaten enough, give it back to the baby".
Example 25-224:
Mela bin stil swim, guwap, la keib, kabidwan.
Mela
1pl.excl
bin
pst
stil
still
swim,
swim
guw-ap,
go-up
la
loc
keib,
cave
kabid-wan.
covered-adj
We still swam and went up into a cave [so we were] covered.

Source: Angelo et al. 1998b

Example 25-218:
En dijan griba tu, wi bin wana jakim la wada.
En
and
dijan
prox:adj
griba
creeper
tu,
too
wi
1pl
bin
pst
wana
pot
jak-im
throw-tr
la
loc
wada.
water
And this creeper (plant), we would have thrown it into the water (using it as fish poison).
Example 25-208:
Imin oldei nesimbat tu jet faiya.
Im=in
3sg=pst
oldei
always/hab
nes-im-bat
nurse-tr-prog
tu
too
jet
dem
faiya.
fire
It used to look after the fire too. (crocodile in myth)

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 61

Example 25-144:
Ai bin gibitbat la ola kid tu sambala mani blanga plei.
Ai
1sg
bin
pst
gib-it-bat
give-tr-prog
la
loc
ola
pl
kid
child
tu
too
sam-bala
some-adj2
mani
money
blanga
dat/poss
plei.
play
I was also giving the children some money for playing.

Source: Angelo et al. 1998a

Example 25-219:
Wi shud binala gidim du, ei?
Wi
1pl
shud
should
bin=ala
pst=always/hab
gid-im
get-tr
du,
too
ei?
tag
We should have been getting them too, ey? (Context: flood relief goods). OR: We should have been able to get them too, ey? (Orig. Transl.)

Source: Angelo et al. 1998a

Example 25-223:
Mela bin ran fas tharrei la Janjuwa.
Mela
1pl.excl
bin
pst
ran
run
fas
fast
tharr-ei
dist-dir
la
loc
Janjuwa.
Janjuwa
We ran fast there to Junjuwa.

Source: Hudson 1985: 157

Example 25-102:
Dubala bin nomo laigim bolorrimap langa mibala.
Dubala
3du
bin
pst
nomo
neg
laig-im
like-tr
bolor-im-ap
follow-tr-up
langa
loc
mibala.
1pl
The two didn't want to follow us.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 63

Example 25-222:
Yu bin givit thetmob.
Yu
2sg
bin
pst
giv-it
give-tr
thet-mob.
dem-coll
You gave it to those [people].
Example 25-221:
Ai bin ranbek garra biliken en ai bin bilimap olda eig.
Ai
1sg
bin
pst
ran-bek
run-back
garra
com/ins
biliken
billycan
en
and
ai
1sg
bin
pst
bil-im-ap
fill-tr-up
olda
pl
eig.
egg
I ran back with the billycan and I filled it up with the eggs.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 65

Example 25-220:
Yubala bin wana pulum.
Yubala
2pl
bin
pst
wana
pot
pul-um.
pull-tr
You should have pulled him (out).
Confidence:
Very certain