Datapoint Kriol/Marking of pronominal possessors

Marking of pronominal possessors is rather variable; the variation seems to partly depend on the pronoun (simple pronoun preferred for 1SG, adpositional marking for other persons), but further investigation is required.
There is only one specialized possessive pronoun in most varieties (1st person singular main); unmarked pronouns are used for all other person/number combinations. Hudson (1985: 44–45) lists 2SG, 3SG, and 3PL possessive pronouns for Fitzroy Valley Kriol. Impressionistically, at least in the Victoria River variety, adpositional marking following the possessum is the most frequent. However, the relative frequencies and the factors underlying the variation require further investigation.

Values

Adpositional phrase following the possessum Frequency: 43.8%

Example 25-188:
Thet min bos bla mibala. [...] Thet fo mibala bos. [...] Gunjumarra min bla mibala bos wanim tijing as yuno? [...] Mai big bos [...] Au bos wanim tijing as.
Thet
dem
min
mean
bos
boss
bla
dat/poss
mibala.
1pl.excl
[...]
[...]
Thet
dem
fo
dat/poss
mibala
1pl.excl
bos.
boss
[...]
[...]
Gunjumarra
boss
min
mean
bla
dat/poss
mibala
1pl.excl
bos
boss
wan=im
subord=3sg
tij-ing
teach-prog2
as
1pl.excl.obj
yuno?
you.know
[...]
[...]
Mai
1sg.poss
big
big
bos
boss
[...]
[...]
Au
1pl.excl.poss
bos
boss
wan=im
subord=3sg
tij-ing
teach-prog2
as.
1pl.excl.obj
(That means) our boss/teacher, that's our boss, gunjumarra means our boss who is teaching us you know? [...] My big boss [...] Our boss who is teaching us.
Example 25-189:
Meit bla im bin singat la im na.
Meit
mate
bla
dat/poss
im
3sg
bin
pst
singat
sing.out
la
loc
im
3sg
na.
now
His mate called out to him then.
Example 25-166:
Imin oldei telim mi “givit bek langa im thet taka blanga im, yu bin takat naf, givit bek la thet beibi".
Im=in
3sg=pst
oldei
always
tel-im
tell-tr
mi
1sg
“giv-it
give-tr
bek
back
langa
loc
im
3sg
thet
dem
taka
tucker
blanga
dat/poss
im,
3sg
yu
2sg
bin
pst
takat
eat
naf,
enough
giv-it
give-tr
bek
back
la
loc
thet
dem
beibi".
baby
She used to say to me "give it back to her, that food of hers, you have eaten enough, give it back to the baby".
Example 25-198:
Tharran na Dadi bla yu.
Tharran
dist:adj
na
now
Dadi
daddy
bla
dat/poss
yu.
2sg
That one [is] your Daddy! (identifying a referent)
Example 25-193:
Im no bin ladim enibodi tatjim dat faiya bla im en imin oldei nesimbat tu dat faiya.
Im
3sg
no
neg
bin
pst
lad-im
let-tr
enibodi
anybody
tatj-im
touch-tr
dat
dem
faiya
fire
bla
dat/poss
im
3sg
en
and
im=in
3sg=pst
oldei
always
nes-im-bat
nurse-tr-prog
tu
too
dat
dem
faiya.
fire
He wouldn't let anybody touch his fire. He always kept it with him.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 61

Confidence:
Very certain

Following word Frequency: 18.8%

Example 25-190:
Bijilain main tharrei.
Biji-lain
fishing-line
main
1sg:poss
tharr-ei.
dist-dir
My fishing line is there. (Said as a warning)
Example 25-197:
Ngiyawula, thet the kantri main, G. mi kolim.
Ngiyawula,
prox:dir
thet
dem
the
eq.cop
kantri
country
main,
mine
G.
G.
mi
1pl
kol-im.
call-tr
Over here, that’s my country, G. we call it.
Example 25-187:
Ai bin gajim det ki-holda main.
Ai
1sg
bin
pst
gaj-im
get-tr
det
dem
ki-holda
key-holder
main.
1sg.poss
I got the key holder [of] mine.

Source: Nicholls 2006: 2

Confidence:
Very certain

Preceding word Frequency: 18.8%

Example 25-188:
Thet min bos bla mibala. [...] Thet fo mibala bos. [...] Gunjumarra min bla mibala bos wanim tijing as yuno? [...] Mai big bos [...] Au bos wanim tijing as.
Thet
dem
min
mean
bos
boss
bla
dat/poss
mibala.
1pl.excl
[...]
[...]
Thet
dem
fo
dat/poss
mibala
1pl.excl
bos.
boss
[...]
[...]
Gunjumarra
boss
min
mean
bla
dat/poss
mibala
1pl.excl
bos
boss
wan=im
subord=3sg
tij-ing
teach-prog2
as
1pl.excl.obj
yuno?
you.know
[...]
[...]
Mai
1sg.poss
big
big
bos
boss
[...]
[...]
Au
1pl.excl.poss
bos
boss
wan=im
subord=3sg
tij-ing
teach-prog2
as.
1pl.excl.obj
(That means) our boss/teacher, that's our boss, gunjumarra means our boss who is teaching us you know? [...] My big boss [...] Our boss who is teaching us.
Example 25-196:
Mibala kantri na!
Mibala
1pl
kantri
country
na!
now
Our country!
Example 25-191:
Ai bin oldei lisen mai olmen.
Ai
1sg
bin
pst
oldei
always
lisen
listen
mai
1sg.poss
olmen.
man
I used to listen to my old man. (i.e. father)
Example 25-195:
Imin telim tubala tu graul mijelb la thei pleis!
Im=in
3sg=pst
tel-im
tell-tr
tubala
3du
tu
comp
graul
argue
mijelb
refl
la
loc
thei
3pl
pleis!
place
He told the two to argue at their (own) place.
Example 25-30:
Imin hitim mi garra im teil.
Im=in
3sg=pst
hit-im
hit-tr
mi
1sg
garra
com/ins
im
3sg
teil.
tail
He hit me with his tail.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 61

Example 25-135:
Yubala go gedim main daga. Nomo wori bla ola pipul.
Yubala
2pl
go
go
ged-im
get-tr
main
1sg.poss
daga.
tucker
Nomo
neg
wori
worry
bla
dat/poss
ola
pl
pipul.
people
You lot go and get my food. Don’t worry about the people.

Source: Bennett 1986: 1

Example 25-194:
Imin gaman gadim im lambarra.
Im=in
3sg=pst
gaman
come
gadim
com/ins
im
3sg
lambarra.
father.in.law
He came with his father-in-law.

Source: Sandefur 1979: 158

Example 25-168:
Dijan longtaim la fam en wi bin abum ol fam dea langa lolebul. Dijan la Katharrain en mai fatha yusta wek dea blanga dat men. Imin - dat men imin neim ol Jim.
Dijan
prox:adj
longtaim
long.ago
la
loc
fam
farm
en
and
wi
1sg
bin
pst
ab-um
have-tr
ol
old
fam
farm
dea
there
langa
loc
lolebul.
Low.Level
Dijan
prox:adj
la
loc
Katharrain
Katherine
en
and
mai
1sg.poss
fatha
father
yusta
hab
wek
work
dea
there
blanga
dat/poss
dat
dem
men.
man
Im=in
3sg=pst
-
 
dat
dem
men
man
im=in
3sg=pst
neim
name
ol
old
Jim.
Jim
This was long ago on a farm and we had an old farm there at Low Level (Crossing). This was in Katherine, and my father used to work there for that man. He- that man, his name was Old Jim. OR: This happened a long time ago on a farm. There was this old farm at the Low Level at Katherine and my father used to work there for a man named Jim. (Orig. Transl.)

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 65

Example 25-199:
Ai bin ardim main fut.
Ai
1sg
bin
pst
ard-im
hurt-tr
main
1sg.poss
fut.
foot
I hurt my foot.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 35

Example 25-142:
Ala munanga bin lus olabat shap [...] ebarrijing!
Ala
pl
munanga
non-Aboriginal
bin
pst
lus
lose
olabat
3pl
shap
shop
[...]
[...]
ebarrijing!
belongings
The non-Aboriginals lost their shops [...] (all their) belongings!

Source: Angelo et al. 1998a

Confidence:
Very certain

Adpositional phrase preceding the possessum Frequency: 18.8%

Example 25-53:
Gunjumarra min bla mibala bos wanim tijing as yuno?
Gunjumarra
boss
min
means
bla
dat/poss
mibala
1pl.excl
bos
boss
wan=im
subord=3sg
tij-ing
teach-prog2
as
1pl.excl.obj
yuno?
you.know
"Gunjumarra" means our boss who is teaching us, you know?
Example 25-192:
Blanga im greni tharran.
Blanga
dat/poss
im
3sg
greni
grandmother
tharran.
dist:adj
That's her grandmother.
Example 25-200:
I bin bak bla im hos.
I
3sg
bin
pst
bak
buck
bla
dat/poss
im
3sg
hos.
horse
His horse bucked.

Source: Hudson 1985: 71

Confidence:
Very certain