Datapoint Pichi/Uses of the habitual marker

There are two means of expressing habitual aspect. 1) The habitual marker /kìn/ may express iterative aspect with dynamic verbs and habitual aspect with verbs from all three lexical aspect classes. The habitual marker may optionally be followed by the imperfective marker /dè/ when the verb specified by it is not stative (Value 3).

2) The imperfective marker /dè/ may alone express habitual aspect as part of a broad range of imperfective meanings (Value 9).

Values

Only habitual function Frequency: 50.0%

Example 19-85:
Ustin kìn de insay de?
Us=tin
q=thing
kìn
hab
de
cop
insay
inside
de?
there
What is usually in there?

Source: Yakpo 2009: 201

Example 19-86:
[...] wi kìn mitɔp insay wan mòtó.
[...]
[...]
wi
1pl
kìn
hab
mitɔp
meet
insay
inside
wan
one
mòtó.
car.
[...] we usually meet/met in a car.

Source: Yakpo 2009: 202

Example 19-87:
We à kìn mek so, à no dè fil hɔt.
We
subord
à
1sg.sbj
kìn
hab
mek
make
so,
so
à
1sg.sbj
no
neg
ipfv
fil
feel
hɔt.
heat
When I would repeatedly do like this, I wouldn't feel [the] heat.

Source: Yakpo 2009: 203

Confidence:
Very certain

Habitual, progressive, current state, and future Frequency: 50.0%

Example 19-88:
Ɛni de dɛ̀n dè chɔp rɛs, ɛni de.
Ɛni
every
de
day
dɛ̀n
3pl
ipfv
chɔp
eat
rɛs,
rice
ɛni
every
de.
day
Every day they eat rice, every day.

Source: Yakpo 2009: 178

Example 19-82:
Nà dis tin dè want kil yu.
foc
dis
this
tin
thing
ipfv
want
want
kil
kill
yu.
2sg.emph
It's this thing [that] was about to kill you.
Example 19-81:
À dè smɛl dì sɛnt fɔ̀ lɛ̀k haw è dè kuk plàntí.
À
1sg.sbj
ipfv
smɛl
smell
def
sɛnt
scent
fɔ̀
assoc
lɛ̀k
like
haw
how
è
3sg.sbj
ipfv
kuk
cook
plàntí.
plantain
I smell the scent of him cooking plantain.

Source: Yakpo 2009: 467

Example 19-84:
Tumɔro senwe à go mit ìn man.
Tumɔro
tomorrow
senwe
emph
à
1sg.sbj
ipfv
go
go
mit
meet
ìn
3sg.poss
man.
man
Tomorrow (emphasis) I'm going to go meet her husband.

Source: Yakpo 2009: 218

Confidence:
Very uncertain