Datapoint Bahamian Creole/Subject relative clauses

The relative markers who, what, and that are not distributed according to case in Bahamian Creole but according to the human/non-human distinction. Thus, who is used for human referents, in both subject and object (cf. Example 225) function, whereas what and that are used primarily for non-human referents, also in subject and object function. However, what can also be employed for human referents (cf. Example 227).

Values

Relative particle and gap Frequency: 70.0%

Example 12-225:
See, see - when - when you - when you go, uh - back in Andros - if - the people-them who you - go to live with - you know - if you - you did tell them to carry you to see if you would find - to see if you would find - uh - where you would see - these bird what call chickcharney, you know, or in other word tell them carry you in Red Bay - that is North Andros -
[...]
[...]
the
art
people-them
people-pl
who
rel
you
2sg.sbj
-
 
go
go
to
to
live
live
with
with
[...]
[...]
these
dem
bird
bird[pl]
what
rel[sbj]
call
call
chickcharney
chickcharney
[...]
[...]
[...] [back in Andros, if -] the people with whom you go to stay [...] the birds that are called chickcharney [...]
Example 12-226:
See, the only reason what cause that snake come 'round - 'cause he smell fish.
[...]
[...]
the
art
only
only
reason
reason
what
rel[sbj]
cause
cause[pfv]
that
dem
snake
snake
come
come
'round
round
[...].
[...]
[...] the only reason that caused that snake to come around [...].
Example 12-227:
And the boys-them what been there - had to gone and hold him - take him up out the water.
[...]
[...]
the
art
boys-them
boy.pl-pl
what
rel[sbj]
been
cop.pst
there
there
[...]
[...]
[And] the boys who were there [had to go and hold him [and] take him out of the water].
Example 12-228:
I never had the chance - there ain't no shark around - that want bite.
[...]
[...]
there
there
ain't
neg
no
neg
shark
shark[pl]
around
around
-
 
that
rel
want
want
bite.
bite
[...] there weren't any sharks around that would have wanted to bite.
Confidence:
Very certain

Zero and gap Frequency: 30.0%

Example 12-224:
It’s a woman come here.
It’s
expl.cop
a
art
woman
woman
come
come[pfv]
here.
here
There’s a woman who has come here/comes here/came here.

Source: Reaser & Torbert 2004: 404

Confidence:
Very certain