Datapoint Bahamian Creole/Negative morpheme types

According to Holm & Shilling (1982: 143), no as a "simple negator before [the] verb“ is "considered archaic or rustic" and is "also used by [Bahamian] Haitians speaking English.“ The distribution of ain’t, don’t and didn’t is governed not only by tense and aspect of the verb situation but also by the stative/non-stative distinction (Shilling 1978: 92–103) as well as by social factors; however, there is much variation in this area of grammar, too. Just as in Jamaican (Patrick 1999: 199–202), never functions as a simple past negator in Bahamian Creole English (cf. Feature 50 "Negation and tense-aspect-mood marking"); thus, at least for some speakers, never has not only a 'not at any time (up to now)’ meaning but appears to be equivalent to didn’t (Hackert 2004: 134–135). There is debate as to whether never should be classified as a negative adverb (Shilling 1978: 100–103).

Values

Negative auxiliary verb Frequency: 50.0%

Example 12-116:
I didn't grow up like that [...] I wasn't grow up like that, my parents never grow us up like that, ain't none of us in gang violent.
I
1sg.sbj
didn't
neg.pst
grow
grow
up
up
like
like
that
that
[...]
[...]
I
1sg.sbj
wasn't
neg.pst
grow
grow
up
up
like
like
that,
that
my
my
parents
parents
never
neg
grow
grow
us
us
up
up
like
like
that
that
[...].
[...]
I didn't grow up like that [...] my parents didn't bring us up like that [...].
Example 12-251:
The next one - like governor. That's a governor, too, hey, but they say - uh - like a slow-lear- learning school, hey, but you have to pay for that, so I didn't had no money to pay, so I let him gone right there.
[...]
[...]
I
1sg.sbj
didn't
neg
had
have.pfv
no
neg
money
money
[...].
[...]
[The next school is a government-run school, too,] [...] [but you have to pay for it, so, since] I didn’t have any money, [I let him [i.e. the speaker’s son] go to the other school].
Confidence:
Certain

Negative particle Frequency: 50.0%

Example 12-249:
Stone at sea bottom no know sun hot.
Stone
stone[pl]
at
at
sea
sea
bottom
bottom
no
neg
know
know
sun
sun
hot.
hot
The rocks at the bottom of the sea don’t know that the sun is hot.

Source: Holm & Shilling 1982: 143

Example 12-236:
If I dead, tell them you don't kill me, tell them I eat poison barracuda.
[...]
[...]
tell
tell[imp]
them
3pl.obj
you
2sg.sbj
don't
neg
kill
kill
me,
me
tell
tell[imp]
them
3pl.obj
I
1sg.sbj
eat
eat[pfv]
poison
poison
barracuda.
barracuda
[If I die,] tell them you didn't kill me, tell them I ate poisoned barracuda.
Example 12-250:
I ain't - I ain't exactly know what kind of work he used to do, but I think he used to work over there. But he retire.
I
1sg.sbj
ain't
neg
-
 
I
1sg.sbj
ain't
neg
exactly
exactly
know
know
[...].
[...]
I don’t exactly know [what kind of work he used to do] [...].
Confidence:
Very certain