Datapoint Early Sranan/Predicative noun phrases

There are three possibilities:
- copula da (< English that); this cannot be preceded by a negator, TAM marker or auxiliary; it is also clause-introducing [it.be], with pronominal as well as copular functions, in accord with its pronominal origin;
- copula de (< English there);
- no copula.

Values

Variable copula

Example 1-178:
Mi da bossiman.
Mi
1sg
da
cop
busiman.
bush.nmlz
I am a marron.

Source: CR 1761

Example 1-176:
Bekassi da direkture a za kili mi lange gon liki mi da ron negere.
Bikasi
because
da
det.sg
driktoro
manager
a
3sg.sbj
sa
fut
kiri
kill
mi
1sg
nanga
with
gon
gun
leki
like
mi
1sg
da
cop
ron-nengre.
run-negro
Because the manager would kill me with his gun as if I were a runaway slave.
Dutch: Want hy zou myn als een Weglooper aanmerken en Dood Schieten. [op.cit.]

Source: van Dyk ca. 1765: 89

Example 1-149:
Em da wan boen kompee foe mie.
En
3sg
da
cop
wan
indf.sg
bun
good
kompe
friend
fu
of
mi.
1sg
He is a good friend of mine.
Dutch: Hy is een goede kennisse van my [op.cit.]

Source: Weygandt 1798: 87

Example 1-85:
Da wan bon zomma.
Da
it.be
wan
indf.sg
bun
good
soma.
person
He(/she/it) is a good person.
Dutch: Hy is een goed Man. [op.cit.]

Source: van Dyk ca. 1765: 31

Example 1-175:
Da dago wan hondiman, a sabi va hondi.
Da
det.sg
dago
dog
wan
indf.sg
ontiman,
hunter
a
3sg.sbj
sabi
know
fu
to
onti.
hunt
That dog is a hunter, it knows how to hunt.
German: Das ist ein Jagdhund. [op.cit.]

Source: Schumann 1783: 26

Example 1-177:
Effi hem no wan ougri somma, wi no ben sa gi hem abra na ju.
Efi
if
en
3sg
no
neg
wan
indf.sg
ogri
evil
soma,
person
wi
1pl
no
neg
ben
pst
sa
fut
gi
give
en
3sg
abra
over
na
to
yu.
2sg
If he weren't an evil person, we wouldn't have handed him over to you.

Source: Schumann 1781: 271

Example 1-179:
Mi de wan muffina, mi no ha bakka, mi no ha fesi.
Mi
1sg
de
cop
wan
indf.sg
mofina,
miserable
mi
1sg
no
neg
ha
have
baka,
back
mi
1sg
no
neg
ha
have
fesi.
face
I'm a miserable person, I don't know which way to turn.
German: Ich bin ein elender Mensch, ich weiss weder aus noch ein, ich bin ganz verlassen. [op.cit.]

Source: Schumann 1783: 117

Example 1-180:
Ma une no bribi: bikasi une no de skaap va mi.
Ma
but
unu
2pl
no
neg
bribi:
believe
bikasi
because
unu
2pl
no
neg
de
cop
skapu
sheep
fu
of
mi.
1sg
But you do not believe, because you are not my sheep / do not belong to my sheep.

Source: Schumann 1781: 147

Confidence:
Very certain