107 Vocative markers

This feature is described more fully in chapter 107.


A vocative phrase may contain a vocative marker in addition to the address term (e.g. hey Ben!), and here we ask whether the vocative marker precedes or follows the address term, and whether it is optional or obligatory.


Susanne Maria Michaelis, Martin Haspelmath and the APiCS Consortium


Optional vocative marker preceding noun27
Optional vocative marker following noun19
Optional vocative marker in both positions4
Obligatory vocative marker preceding noun1
No vocative marker19

Language Value Lexifier Details Source
Id Primary text Analyzed text Gloss Translation Type Language Audio Details