Creolese, also referred to in the literature as Guyanese Creole, is a widely-used vernacular language variety which co-exists with Standard Guyanese English, the sole official language of the Republic of Guyana, which is normally acquired through formal schooling. It is the native tongue of the majority of the over 700, 000 inhabitants of the Republic of Guyana, and also widely spoken by several hundred thousand other Guyanese, scattered in the diaspora communities worldwide. Contributing languages to Creolese have included English, Arawak (Lokono), Carib (Karina), Bhojpuri, Akan, Kikongo, Yoruba and Dutch. Due to an ever-present, ongoing contact with its major contributing lexifier English, the Creolese language variety has developed a high degree of variability. Linguists such as Bickerton (1975) and Rickford (1979, 1987) and other scholars have used the term “Creole continuum” to describe this language variety. This continuum includes at one end of the spectrum a basilectal or more conservative language variety and on the other end an acrolectal language variety, more closely allied to Standard English, with a mesolectal or an infinite number of varieties existing in between. In order to provide the user with a more global understanding of the variation context within which Creolese speakers generally operate, the default lect for APiCS incorporates both basilectal and mesolectal varieties of the language. Published sources for some of the examples used in the Creolese APiCS dataset include Dolphin (1996), Monar (1985), Rickford (1979, 1987), Bickerton (1975), Devonish (1974) and Persaud (1970).
|trill, tap or flap||r||ɾ|
|mb||prenasalized voiced bilabial plosive - Exists only as a minor allophone|
|Exists (as a major allophone)|
|Exists only as a minor allophone|
|Exists only in loanwords|
|Does not exist|