120 Tone

This feature is described more fully in chapter 120.


Tone refers to pitch contrasts that distinguish different words, either different lexeme stems or different grammatical forms, as e.g. singular vs. plural, or different tenses of the verb. (Tone is also the topic of WALS feature 13, by Ian Maddieson.)


Philippe Maurer and the APiCS Consortium


No tone distinctions52
Reduced tone system9
Simple system, for lexical distinctions only3
Simple tone system, for lexical and grammatical distinctions9
Complex tone system, for lexical and grammatical distinctions1

Language Value Lexifier Details Source
Id Primary text Analyzed text Gloss Translation Type Language Audio Details