Principense

Principense, a Portuguese-based language called Lung’Ie (the language of the island) by its speakers, is an endangered language. On the island of Principe (Gulf of Guinea), there are maybe still twenty native speakers who speak the language fluently; however, a teritorially homogeneous linguistic community does not exist any more. The dominant languages of Principe are regional varieties of Portuguese as well as Cape Verdean Creole; the latter is spoken by more than half of the population of the island, due to the important immigration of Cape Verdeans from the beginning of the 20th century.

Some efforts have been made to teach Principense in school, but these efforts have not been successful. Printed media do not exist on the island of Principe, but radio news are broadcast five times a week (sometimes less).

Outside Principe, Principense is spoken on the neighbouring island São Tomé; a fairly numerous community of Principense speakers live in Lisbon (Portugal); however, it is impossible to determine the exact number of these native speakers.

The default lect described in APiCS is the lect spoken by people aged sixty or more; younger generation refers to some extremely rare speakers between thirty and fifty years who possess a good command of the language.

Glossed text (58.0KB, application/pdf)
No. Feature Value % lect Details Source
No. Feature Value % lect Details Source

Consonants

bilabial
labiodental
dental
dental/alveolar
dental/alveolar
affricate
palato-alveolar
retroflex
palatal
velar
labial-velar
uvular
glottal
plosive/affricatepbtdt͡sd͡zt͡ʃd͡ʒʈɖcɟkgk͡pg͡bqʔ
aspirated plosive/affricatet͡sʰt͡ʃʰ
glottalized stop/affricateɓt͡sʼt͡ʃʼ
nasalmnɳɲŋ
trill, tap or flaprɾ
fricativeɸβfvθðszʃʒxɣχh
lateral/approximantɬlɭjw

Vowels

frontnear-frontcentralnear-backback
high
higher-mid
mid
lower-mid
low

Special segments

ʎvoiced palatal lateral approximant - Exists (as a major allophone)
ɗvoiced dental/alveolar implosive plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
ȷ̃nasalized voiced palatal glide - Exists (as a major allophone)

Legend

 Exists (as a major allophone)
 Exists only as a minor allophone
 Exists only in loanwords
 Does not exist
No. Feature Value % lect Details Source