Datapoint Michif/Instrumental expressions

There are several ways of expressing instrumentals in Michif.

Adpositions can be used, similar to 'with a knife'. The adposition can be from French (a preposition) or Cree (a postposition).

Verbs meaning 'use' could be used where the instrument would be an object: 'She used a knife to cut the meat'. These are not serial verb constructions since both the 'use' verb and the action verb are fully inflected for both subject and object.

Finally, the verb stem in Michif is bipartite, i.e. it consists of at least two root-like elements. Some of these may have an instrumental meaning, such as 'with wood' or 'with the foot'. For instance tahkushkeew 'he steps' and tahkuneew 'he holds' can be analyzed as consisting of tahkw- 'hold, touch' and -ishk- 'with foot' and -n- 'with hand' respectively.

Values

Adposition Frequency: 50.0%

Example 75-171:
La vyaan kiimanisham avek li kwato.
La
def.art.f.sg
vyaan
meat
kii-manish-am
pst-cut.inan-3.obj.inan
avek
with
li
def.art.m.sg
kwato.
knife
She cut the meat with a knife.

Source: Fleury 2007

Example 75-174:
Kiiaashtaweham li feu avek dilo.
Kii-aashtaweh-am
pst-extinguish.inan-3.sbj.3.obj
li
def.art.m.sg
feu
fire
avek
with
dilo.
water
She extinguished the fire with water.

Source: Fleury 2007

Example 75-175:
Shakishkaham la port kii uhchi.
Shakishk-ah-am
close-WITH.ins-3.sbj.3inan.obj
la
def.art.f.sg
port
door
kii
key
uhchi.
from
He closed the door with a key.

Source: Fleury 2007

Confidence:
Very certain

Non-serial verb Frequency: 50.0%

Example 75-172:
Aen kuto kiiapahchitaaw chikishkishak la vyaand.
Aen
indf.art.m.sg
kuto
knife
kii-apahchit-aaw
pst-use.inan-3.obj
chi-kishkish-ak
fut.comp-cut-1sg
la
def.art.f.sg
vyaand.
meat
I used a knife to cut the meat. OR: I cut the meat with a knife.

Source: Fleury 2007

Example 75-173:
Maamaa kiiaapachiheew lii rosh eeshikwatahahk lii takwahiminaana.
Maamaa
mother
kii-aapachih-eew
pst-use.anim-3.sbj.3.obj
lii
art.pl
rosh
stone
ee-shikwatah-ahk
comp-crush.inan-3.sbj.3.obj
lii
art.pl
takwahiminaan-a.
chokecherry-pl
My mother used stones to make beaten choke-cherries. OR: My mother crushed choke-cherries with stones.

Source: Laverdure & Allard 1983: 37

Confidence:
Very certain