Datapoint Creolese/Predicative noun phrases and predicative locative phrases

In Creolese, the locational predicate has the option of de when the message is intended to be interpreted as locational, and zero when the message is merely informational. However, whichever option is adopted, it is distinct from the nominal copula a.

Values

Differentiation

Example 5-121:
az dem se ool aig a livn piipl
az
as
dem
3pl
se
say
ool
old
aig
higues
a
cop
livn
living
piipl
people
since they say Old Higues are living people

Source: Rickford 1987: 146, line 344

Example 5-125:
Jaan de in de
Jaan
John
de
is
in
in
de
there
John is/can be found in there.
Example 5-124:
Jaan in de
Jaan
John
in
in
de
there
John is in there.
Confidence:
Very certain