Datapoint Papiamentu/Subject relative clauses

The use of relative pronouns kende 'who' and kual or kua 'which' is by and large restricted to formal contexts and/or educated speakers. These relative pronouns are not case-marked. In other words, no distinction exists between subject relatives and object relatives. Nevertheless, their pronominal status clearly seen in their ability to appear with the plural marker nan, and their ability to occur as object of a preposition (see Feature 94 "Instrument relative clauses" for the latter).
The more common, all-purpose relativizer ku has the status of complementizer. It does not admit plural marking, and where relativizing the object of P, it requires preposition-stranding.

Values

Relative particle and gap Frequency: 75.0%

Example 47-181:
E hòmber ku ta papia ei ta mi amigu.
E
def
hòmber
man
ku
comp
ta
tns
papia
speak
ei
there
ta
cop
mi
1sg
amigu.
friend
The man who is speaking there is my friend.

Source: Muysken 1977: 86

Example 47-182:
Ta solamente esnan ku no tin plaka kèsh ta kumpra outo.
Ta
cop
solamente
only
esun
one
nan
pl
ku
comp
no
neg
tin
have
plaka
money
kèsh
cash
ta
tns
kumpra
buy
outo.
car
It is only those who don't have cash that buy cars (from the local dealers).

Source: Kouwenberg 2007d: 317

Confidence:
Very certain

Relative pronoun Frequency: 25.0%

Example 47-183:
E hòmber a presentá nèt na tempu pa chèk e tipo ladron nan kende nan a kore bai
E
def
hòmber
man
a
pfv
presentá
appear
nèt
just
na
loc
tempu
time
pa
for
chèk
check
e
def
tipo
type
ladron
thief
nan
pl
kende
who
nan
pl
a
pfv
kore
run
bai
go
The man appeared just in time to see the thieves who ran off.

Source: Maurer 1988a: 406

Example 47-184:
[...] pa e elekshon kual ta tuma lugá djabièrnè awor.
[...]
[...]
pa
for
e
def
elekshon
election
kual
which
ta
tns
tuma
take
lugá
place
djabièrnè
Friday
awor.
now
[...] for the election which takes place this Friday.

Source: Extra: 25 June 2009, p.6.

Example 47-185:
Pa esaki tin 4 kandidato kua nan ta [...].
Pa
for
es(un)
one
aki
dem
tin
have
4
4
kandidato
candidate
kua
which
nan
pl
ta
cop
[...].
[...]
For this there are 4 candidates, who are [...].

Source: Extra: 25 June 2006, p.6

Confidence:
Very certain