Datapoint Papiamentu/Noun phrase conjunction and comitative

To conjoin sentence parts, including predicates, PPs, NPs and APs, i ‘and’ or ku ‘with’ can be used, the former suggesting a looser association than the latter (Richardson 1977).
Where ku is used to conjoin nominal constituents, ambiguity between the comitative interpretation of ku
‘with’ and its use as a conjunction may result, as shown in Examples 142 and 143.

Values

Overlap

Example 47-142:
Ela kumpra pan i keshi.
El
3sg
a
pfv
kumpra
buy
pan
bread
i
and
keshi.
cheese
He bought bread and cheese.

Source: Muller 1989b: 472

Example 47-143:
Ela kumpra pan ku keshi.
El
3sg
a
pfv
kumpra
buy
pan
bread
ku
with
keshi.
cheese
He bought a cheese sandwich. OR: He bought bread and cheese

Source: Muller 1989b: 472

Example 47-141:
Na yegada di e patruya a resultá ku ambulans a bai ku e víktima kaba.
Na
loc
yegada
arrival
di
of
e
def
patruya
patrol
a
pfv
resultá
result
ku
comp
ambulans
ambulance
a
pfv
bai
go
ku
with
e
def
víktima
victim
kaba.
already
On the arrival of the police patrol car, it turned out that the ambulance had already carried off the victim.

Source: Extra: 3 July 2009, p.5

Confidence:
Very certain