Datapoint Zamboanga Chabacano/Predicative noun phrases

Most frequently, a zero-copula is used. A predicative copula exclusively occurs in the past (estába). Amó is used as a focused or/and emphatic copula and it is borrowed from a Philippinic language where it functions as a focus particle (cf. Aoto 2002).

Values

No copula

Example 46-110:
Hendéq 'le amerikáno.
Hendéq
neg
'le
s/he
amerikáno.
american
S/he is not an American.
Example 46-134:
Ántes el Zamboanga un dyútay syudád.
Ántes
before
el
art
Zamboanga
Zamboanga
un
a
dyútay
small
syudád.
city
Zamboanga used to be a small city.
Example 46-132:
Estába soldáw.
Estába
was
soldáw.
soldier
He was a soldier.
Example 46-133:
Un estudyánte estába si Teresa.
Un
a
estudyánte
student
estába
was
si
ag
Teresa.
Teresa
Teresa was once a student.
Example 46-135:
Un estudyánte si Teresa dos ányo ya-pasá.
Un
a
estudyánte
student
si
ag
Teresa
Teresa
dos
two
ányo
years
ya-pasá.
prf-pass
Two years ago, Teresa was a student.
Example 46-136:
Este amo el maga palabra del Hijo de Dios.
éste
this
amó
cop
el
art
mga
pl
palábra
word
del
of.the
ího
son
de
of
Dyos.
God
These are the words of the Son of God.

Source: Lipski & Santoro 2007: 387

Confidence:
Very certain