Propositions with past-reference are negated with the negative existential nuáy 'there is not'. This is obviosly a Visayan feature. All the rest is expressed by the Philippine particle hendéq. Forman (1972: 225): "Nway replaces the existentials and and the tense-aspect marker ya-"; but counter examples are Examples 95 and 98. Consequently, co-occurence is possible.