Datapoint Papiá Kristang/Marking of patient noun phrases

Definite human patient NPs are marked. Indefinite human patient NPs are optionally marked depending on whether the referent is specific or not, yet also depending on the degree of recognition that the speaker grants the patient NP. Non-human animate patients are not normally marked, unless highly definite. Inanimate patients are not marked.

Values

Only definite and animate patient NPs are marked

Example 42-98:
yo ja olá ku Maria sa pai
yo
1sg
ja
pfv
olá
see
ku
acc
Maria
Maria
sa
gen
pai
father
I saw Maria's father.

Source: Baxter 1988: 156

Example 42-100:
eli já kaza ńgua malayu
eli
3sg
pfv
kaza
marry
ńgua
one
malayu
Malay
She married a Malay.

Source: Baxter 1988: 157

Example 42-99:
eli ta olá aké buku
eli
3sg
ta
prog
olá
look
aké
that
buku
book
He is looking at that book.

Source: Baxter 1988: 154

Example 42-101:
nus ja olá aké pesi
nus
1pl
ja
pfv
olá
see
aké
that
pesi
fish
We saw that fish.

Source: Baxter 1988: 159

Confidence:
Very certain