Datapoint Diu Indo-Portuguese/Subject relative clauses

In a Diu Indo-Portuguese relative clause, the relativized element is almost always expressed by the relative particle ki, but there is a host of other elements (formally equivalent to interrogative pro-forms) which sometimes function as relative particles sensitive to the epistemic domain of the relativized element (e.g. whether it is a human referent, a location, a manner expression, etc.).

With respect to subject relative clauses, the relevant relativizers are ki, kẽ and kwɔl. The relative particle ki is by far the most common, used with any type of referent; kẽ is reserved for human referents and, although quite rare as a relativizer, is otherwise very common as an interrogative pronoun meaning 'who'; kwɔl, even rarer as a relativizer (but common as an adnominal question word meaning 'which'), has been recorded with both human and non-human referents.

Of the three relativizers under analysis, the only one which fits the definition of a relative pronoun is kẽ, as this is the only one which admits dative/accusative case-marking. This fact is not entirely surprising, given that, in Diu Indo-Portuguese, animate referents are the only ones requiring accusative case-marking in direct object position.

Values

Relative particle and gap Frequency: 70.0%

Example 39-154:
Ikəl raprig ki vẽdew jɔrnal a mĩ ɛr bẽy piken.
Ikəl
dem
raprig
girl
ki
rel
vẽde-w
sell-pst
jɔrnal
newspaper
a
dat
1sg.obl
ɛr
cop.pst
bẽy
very
piken.
small
The girl who sold me the newspaper was very small.

Source: Cardoso 2004-2008

Example 39-156:
Ikəl pad ki tiŋ aki.
Ikəl
dem
pad
priest
ki
rel
t-iŋ
exist-pst
aki.
here
The priest who was here.

Source: Cardoso 2009: 239

Example 39-157:
Ikəl ɔm kwɔl kaiw.
Ikəl
dem
ɔm
man
kwɔl
rel
kai-w.
fall-pst
The man who fell down.

Source: Cardoso 2004-2008

Example 39-20:
ikəl raprig ki vẽdew jɔrnal
ikəl
dem
raprig
girl
ki
rel
vẽde-w
sell-pst
jɔrnal
newspaper
the girl who sold (me) the newspaper

Source: Cardoso 2004-2008

Confidence:
Very certain

Relative pronoun Frequency: 30.0%

Example 39-155:
Ikəl raprig kẽ vẽdew jɔrnal a mĩ ɛr bẽy piken.
Ikəl
dem
raprig
girl
kẽ
who
vẽde-w
sell-pst
jɔrnal
newspaper
a
dat
1sg.obl
ɛr
cop.pst
bẽy
very
piken.
small
The girl who sold me the newspaper was very small.

Source: Cardoso 2004-2008

Confidence:
Certain