Structure dataset 39: Diu Indo-Portuguese

This language is described more fully in survey chapter 39.

With a small and close-knit population of around 180 speakers, Diu Indo-Portuguese is not characterized by regional variants, although an unspecified number of speakers have indeed migrated to other parts of the world. However, this is not to say there is no variation: the most relevant type is contextual, caused by the variable integration of features of Portuguese (e.g., some person marking on verb forms, some phonetic specificities, some lexemes...), in which a section of the speech community is fluent to differing degrees; in addition, the presence of speakers of the related Indo-Portuguese creole of Daman and speakers of other languages for whom Indo-Portuguese is an L2 also implies some variation. The description of the language in Cardoso (2009) and APiCS is based on recordings made in Diu between 2004 and 2008, with native speakers of all ages whose immediate family hailed from the territory and in contexts as free as possible from the normative pressure of Portuguese - this constitutes the default lect in this publication, in which variation is duly reported. Occasionally, reference is made to an older lect, which draws mostly on a short corpus published by Hugo Schuchardt in 1883 and, when they coincide, on the speech of the elder speakers.

No. Feature Value lect Details Source
No. Feature Value lect Details Source


Pulmonic Consonants
Place → Labial Coronal Dorsal Laryngeal
↓ Manner Bilabial Labio­dental Linguo­labial Dental Alveolar Palato-
Retroflex Alveolo-
Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal
/ Epiglottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p b t d ʈ ɖ k g
Sibilant affricate t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Non-sibilant affricate
Sibilant fricative s z ʃ ʒ
Non-sibilant fricative f
Approximant ʋ l j
Flap or tap ɾ
Trill r
Lateral affricate
Lateral fricative
Lateral approximant
Lateral flap


Front Near-front Central Near-back Back Close Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open ihigh front unrounded vowel nasalized high front unrounded vowel uhigh back rounded vowel nasalized high back rounded vowel ehigher mid front unrounded vowel nasalized higher mid front unrounded vowel ohigher mid back rounded vowel nasalized higher mid back rounded vowel əmid central unrounded vowel ɛlower mid front unrounded vowel ɛ̃nasalized lower mid front unrounded vowel ɔlower mid back rounded vowel ɔ̃nasalized lower mid back rounded vowel ɐnear-open central vowel alow central unrounded vowel nasalized low central unrounded vowel

Special segments

Other segments
 w  voiced labial-velar glide


       Exists (as a major allophone)
       Exists only as a minor allophone
       Exists only in loanwords
No. Feature Value lect Details Source