Datapoint Diu Indo-Portuguese/Uses of the habitual marker

In Diu Indo-Portuguese, habitual actions are often marked with the imperfective markers te/ and tiŋ, Non-past and Past respectively, which also construct progressive aspect. Their use to indicate current states is less widespread: in general, stative verbs do not admit imperfective marking. The most notable exception is that of fika, which, in a locative construction, means both 'to stay' and 'to dwell'; crucially, in its latter sense, fika can occur both with or without the imperfective auxiliary. As of yet, it is not clear whether instances of imperfective-marked fika 'to dwell' truly imply an expectation of temporariness.

Values

Habitual, progressive, and current state

Example 39-91:
El tə bebe sɔ leyt, nə.
El
3
ipfv.npst
beb-e
drink-inf
only
leyt,
milk
nə.
req
He drinks nothing but milk, you see.

Source: Cardoso 2004-2008

Example 39-1:
Ryan tə lãbe biskit.
Ryan
Ryan
ipfv.npst
lãb-e
lick-inf
biskit.
biscuit
Ryan is licking the biscuit.

Source: Cardoso 2004-2008

Example 39-2:
Jacob tə faze vɔs də kɔb.
Jacob
Jacob
ipfv.npst
faz-e
make-inf
vɔs
voice
of
kɔb.
snake
Jacob is imitating the voice of a snake (lit. Jacob is making the voice of a snake).

Source: Cardoso 2004-2008

Example 39-61:
Nɔs tə kume ku mãw.
Nɔs
1pl
ipfv.npst
kum-e
eat-inf
ku
ins
mãw.
hand/arm
We are eating with our hand(s).

Source: Cardoso 2009: 186

Example 39-92:
Nɔs tə fika nə Diw.
Nɔs
1pl
ipfv.npst
fik-a
stay-inf
loc
Diw.
Diu
We live in Diu.

Source: Cardoso 2004-2008

Confidence:
Intermediate