Datapoint Cape Verdean Creole of Santiago/Distance contrasts in demonstratives

There are two (ad)nominal demonstratives: kel (pl. kes) is indifferent regarding distance, es (invariable) may be used for 'proximity’ ('near speaker') only. With kel a contrast can be made by adding li 'here’ or la 'there’. With es one can emphasize the 'proximity to the speaker’ by adding li.

Values

Two-way contrast

Example 30-73:
Kel lápis li ê di meu, kel (lápis) la ê di bo.
Kel=lápis
dem.sg=pencil
li
here
ê
be
di.meu,
1sg.poss
kel
dem.sg
(lápis)
(pencil)
la
there
ê
be
di=bo.
of=2sg
This pencil belongs to me, that (pencil) belongs to you.
German: Dieser Bleistift hier gehört mir, jener (Bleistift) dort gehört dir.

Source: Lang 2012

Example 30-74:
Es lápis li ê di meu.
Es=lápis
dem=pencil
li
here
ê
be
di.meu.
1sg.poss
This pencil belongs to me.

Source: Lang 2012

Confidence:
Very certain