Datapoint Berbice Dutch/Passive constructions

Berbice Dutch passives are nonprototypical in that there is no auxiliary or passive morphology. Note also that Berbice Dutch does not have the equivalent of a by-phrase. In other words, an agentive cannot be expressed in any way in a passive. Passives are of very low frequency.

Values

Passive without verbal coding

Example 28-146:
eni wari ben so boki mja
eni
3pl
wari
house
ben
inside
so
FOCUS
boki
money
mja
make
In their house, money was made.

Source: Kouwenberg 1994a: 453

Example 28-147:
o bɛritɛ mɛtalma ʃi gutuwap
o
3sg
bɛri-tɛ
bury-pfv
mɛtɛ
with
alma
all
ʃi
3sg.poss
gutu-apu
thing-pl
She was buried with all her possessions.

Source: Kouwenberg 2007b: 38

Confidence:
Very certain