Datapoint Berbice Dutch/Focusing of the noun phrase

Focus of nominals is optionally introduced by a highlighter da (homophonous with the equative copula). With da present, the right edge is optionally marked by focus marker sa/so. The background clause is never introduced by a subordinating element, suggesting that it does not have the status of a relative clause.

Values

Cleft with copula before focus Frequency: 70.0%

Example 28-118:
da boki o mja mɛ di gutu
da
cop
boki
money
o
2sg
mja
make
mɛtɛ
with
di
the
gutu
thing
(It) is money he makes with it.

Source: Kouwenberg 2007b: 42

Example 28-35:
da iʃi twalen jɛnda hiri
da
foc
iʃi
1pl
twɛ
two
alen
alone
jɛn-da
be-there
hiri
here
The two of us alone were here.

Source: Kouwenberg 1994a: 176

Example 28-181:
da or da di, watjə rupa nau, domni
da
cop
ori
3sg
so
foc
da
cop
di,
the
wati
what
ju
2sg
rupu-a
call-ipfv
nau,
now
domni
pastor
(It) is he who is the, what do you call (it), pastor.

Source: Kouwenberg 1994a: 425

Example 28-7:
da mɛt oriso wa jɛnda, afto pakatɛ fan di haspital
da
cop
mɛtɛ
with
ori
3sg
so
foc
o
3sg
wa
pst
jɛn-da,
loc.cop-there
afta
after
o
3sg
paka-tɛ
exit-pfv
fan
from
di
def
haspital
hospital
It is with her that she was staying, after she came out of the hospital.

Source: Kouwenberg 1994a: 195

Confidence:
Very certain

Bare fronting (without particle) Frequency: 30.0%

Example 28-182:
di gugujap en bi ha
di
the
gu-gu-jɛ-apu
big-big-nmlz-pl
eni
3pl
bi
say
habu
have
The big ones they say do have (it).

Source: Kouwenberg 1994a: 425

Example 28-183:
én kal glaʃo pitɛk
en
one
kali
small
glaʃi
glass
o
3sg
pi-tɛ
give-pfv
ɛkɛ
1sg
One tiny glass she gave me.

Source: Kouwenberg 1994a: 426

Confidence:
Very certain