Datapoint Kriol/Order of relative clause and noun

The most frequent equivalent of a relative clause Kriol variety is probably most adequately described as an adjoined relative clause or general subordinate clause (as is the equivalent in some of the traditional languages of the area). It is marked by the subordinator we~weiya~wen~wan and can receive either a modifying or a temporal/spatial interpretation. In modifying function, it can also be separated from its (semantic) head noun although in most instances it will immediately follow it.
A minority of examples contain a relative clause without subordinator immediately following the head noun.

Values

Adjoined relative clause Frequency: 70.0%

Example 25-52:
Tubala kamin hiya we imin habim tubala marrug.
Tubala
two
kam-in
come-prog2
hiya
here
we
subord
im=in
3sg=pst
hab-im
have-tr
tubala
two
marrug.
hidden
The two are coming here, the ones that he (a white man) had kept hidden away. (Context: a narrative about the escape of the speaker and her classificatory sister from a station where, as young girls, they were kept for domestic labour - quoting a familiy member when they reached their family living in the hill country.)
Example 25-53:
Gunjumarra min bla mibala bos wanim tijing as yuno?
Gunjumarra
boss
min
means
bla
dat/poss
mibala
1pl.excl
bos
boss
wan=im
subord=3sg
tij-ing
teach-prog2
as
1pl.excl.obj
yuno?
you.know
"Gunjumarra" means our boss who is teaching us, you know?
Example 25-49:
Thei bin oldei faindim, thet [...] goana, we imin oldei klaimap.
Thei
3pl
bin
pst
oldei
always
faind-im,
find-tr
thet
dem
[...]
[...]
goana,
goanna
we
subord
im=in
3sg=pst
oldei
always
klaim-ap.
climb-up
They used to find the [...] goanna when it used to climb up. OR: They used to find any goanna that climbed up.
Example 25-56:
Thet the kenggaru na langa hil we im jidan.
Thet
dem
the
eq.cop
kenggaru
kangaroo
na
now
langa
loc
hil
hill
we
subord
im
3sg
jidan.
stay
(Discussing animal names:) That's the kangaroo that lives in the hills.
Example 25-51:
Imin daib rait la jat krokadail wea imin nesimbat dat faiya.
Im=in
3sg=pst
daib
dive
rait
right
la
loc
jat
dem
krokadail
crocodile
wea
subord
im=in
3sg=pst
nes-im-bat
nurse-tr-prog
dat
dem
faiya.
fire
It dove right to the crocodile which was looking after the fire.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 61

Example 25-55:
Yu ken ji jet fingganeil trek we im openim.
Yu
2sg
ken
can
ji
see
jet
dem
fingga-neil
finger-nail
trek
track
we
subord
im
3sg
open-im.
open-tr
You can see the claws' track where it comes out into the open. (talking about a goanna [large lizard])
Example 25-54:
Thei bin frait [...] we thei bin katim.
Thei
3pl
bin
pst
frait
frightened/fear
[...]
[...]
we
subord
thei
3pl
bin
pst
kat-im.
cut-tr
They were afraid, since they cut him. (i.e. cut his finger off)
Example 25-50:
Thet bekbon bla im en teil, yuno, wanim kipgon krejim.
Thet
dem
bekbon
back
bla
dat/poss
im
3sg
en
and
teil,
tail
yuno,
you_know
wan=im
subord=sg
kip-gon
keep-going
krej-im.
scratch-tr
Its back and tail, you know, when it keeps digging. (Refering to a goanna)
Example 25-57:
Oletaim, yuno, wa mibala bin la steshen.
Oletaim,
always
yuno,
you.know
wa
subord
mibala
1pl
bin
pst
la
loc
steshen.
station
All the time, you know, when/that we were on the station.
Example 25-60:
Mindubala go ngarra la thatlat biginini weya alabat ani kambek burrum Dupuma.
Mindubala
1du.excl
go
go
ngarra
look.for
la
loc
that-lat
dem-pl
biginini
child
weya
subord
alabat
3pl
ani
pot
kam-bek
come-back
burrum
from
Dupuma.
Dhupuma
We're going to look for the children who will come back from Dhupuma (College). OR: We're going to look for the children who are coming back from Dhupuma (College).

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 57

Confidence:
Certain

Relative clause follows noun Frequency: 30.0%

Example 25-59:
Mindubala go ngarra la thatlat biginini ani kambek burrum Dupuma.
Mindubala
1du.excl
go
go
ngarra
look.for
la
loc
that-lat
dem-pl
biginini
child
ani
pot
kam-bek
come-back
burrum
from
Dupuma.
Dhupuma
We're going to look for the children who will come back from Dhupuma (College). OR: We're going to look for the children who are coming back from Dhupuma (College).

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 57

Example 25-58:
Ola munanga, dei bin kraikrai bla alabat bisnis dei bin lusim [...].
Ola
pl
munanga,
non-Aboriginal
dei
3pl
bin
pst
krai~krai
red.cry
bla
dat/poss
alabat
3pl
bisnis
business
dei
3pl
bin
pst
lus-im
lose-tr
[...].
[...]
The non-Aboriginals, they were crying for their businesses which they lost [...].

Source: Angelo et al. 1998a

Confidence:
Intermediate