Datapoint Kriol/Instrumental expressions

Instruments are consistently expressed by an adpositional phrase with the adposition gota~gata~garra 'with’ (see also Feature 70 "Comitatives and instrumentals").

Values

Adposition

Example 25-273:
[...] kilimbat gota stik
[...]
[...]
kil-im-bat
hit-tr-prog
gota
ins
stik
stick
[...] hitting him with a stick
Example 25-226:
Aim goin na got mai motika.
Aim
1sg.be
go-in
go-prog
na
now
got
com/ins
mai
1sg.poss
motika.
car
I’m going now with my car.
Example 25-211:
Dat krokadail bin hitim im garrim teil. Imin andimwei im.
Dat
dem
krokadail
crocodile
bin
pst
hit-im
hit-tr
im
3sg
garrim
ins
teil.
tail
Im=in
3sg=pst
and-im-wei
hunt-tr-away
im.
3sg
The crocodile hit him with his tail and chased him away.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 61

Example 25-215:
Orla gel en boi bin nakam-bat jelp garra kura, garra burluman kura.
Orla
pl
gel
girl
en
and
boi
boy
bin
pst
nak-am-bat
hit-tr-prog
jelp
refl
garra
com/ins
kura,
dung
garra
com/ins
burluman
cattle
kura.
dung
The girls and boys were hitting each other with dung, with cattle dung.

Source: Hudson 1985: 48

Confidence:
Very certain