Datapoint Kriol/Tightness of the link between the progressive marker and the verb

The suffixes -(a)bat and -in~-ing are both considered progressive markers here (but see comments on Feature 49 "Tense-aspect systems"). The functional difference between them is not well understood, but -(a)bat is the more frequent and more productive form. Both can be combined in which case -in~-ing precedes -(a)bat.

Values

Affix

Example 25-225:
Olabat bin grajing yem.
Olabat
3pl
bin
pst
graj-ing
scratch-prog2
yem.
yam
They were digging yam.

Source: Sandefur 1979: 114

Example 25-226:
Aim goin na got mai motika.
Aim
1sg.be
go-in
go-prog
na
now
got
com/ins
mai
1sg.poss
motika.
car
I’m going now with my car.
Example 25-98:
Thet the mindubala lengwij na wi toking la yu dijey taka.
Thet
dem
the
eq.cop
mindubala
1du.excl
lengwij
language
na
now
wi
1pl
tok-ing
talk-prog2
la
loc
yu
2sg
dij-ey
prox-way
taka.
plant.food
It's OUR language that we're speaking to you [when giving you the word for] this edible plant.
Example 25-227:
Yubala jeldan na, don faitimbat.
Yubala
2pl
jeldan
settle.down
na,
now
don
neg.imp
fait-im-bat.
fight-tr-prog
Settle down, you lot! Don't fight!
Example 25-164:
Wal jad lilboi imin reken frog bin likimbat feis en pulumbat heya.
Wal
well
jad
dem
lilboi
little.boy
im=in
3sg=pst
reken
think/say
frog
frog
bin
pst
lik-im-bat
lick-tr-prog
feis
face
en
and
pul-um-bat
pull-tr-prog
heya.
hair
Well that little boy said/thought that the frog licked his face and pulled his hair.

Source: Galmurr & Willika 1996

Example 25-215:
Orla gel en boi bin nakam-bat jelp garra kura, garra burluman kura.
Orla
pl
gel
girl
en
and
boi
boy
bin
pst
nak-am-bat
hit-tr-prog
jelp
refl
garra
com/ins
kura,
dung
garra
com/ins
burluman
cattle
kura.
dung
The girls and boys were hitting each other with dung, with cattle dung.

Source: Hudson 1985: 48

Example 25-145:
Dumaji ai bin askimbat kwestyin la thad munanga na weya alabat wek jeya.
Dumaji
because
ai
1sg
bin
pst
ask-im-bat
ask-tr-prog
kwestyin
question
la
loc
thad
dem
munanga
non.Aboriginal
na
now
weya
subord
alabat
3pl
wek
work
jeya.
there
Because I was questioning the non-Aboriginals who are working there.

Source: Angelo et al. 1998a

Example 25-228:
Dat gel im gibitbat dat man jumok.
Dat
dem
gel
girl
im
3sg
gib-it-bat
give-tr-prog
dat
dem
man
man
jumok.
smoke/tobacco
That girl is giving the man tobacco.
Confidence:
Very certain